El Chichón is a complex of domes with a tuff ring, made of ejected volcanic material, located between the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Central America Volcanic Arc. [5] However, climate modeling and detailed studies of past eruptions and El Niño have shown that there are no plausible theories connecting these two events, and that the timing was merely a coincidence. The Eruptions. El Chichón is built on Tertiary siltstone and sandstone, underlain by Cretaceous dolomitic limestone; a 4-km-deep bore hole near the east base of the volcano penetrated this limestone and continued 770 m into a sequence of Jurassic or Cretaceous evaporitic anhydrite and halite. Bibliography. Cliquez sur un titre d’article pour afficher sa carte mentale. El Chichón is built on Tertiary siltstone and sandstone, underlain by Cretaceous dolomitic limestone; a 4-km-deep bore hole near the east base of the volcano penetrated this limestone and continued 770 m into a sequence of Jurassic or Cretaceous evaporitic anhydrite and halite. Please submit any useful information about climbing El Chichón that may be useful to other climbers. [2] A new 1-km-wide, 300-m-deep crater was created that now contains an acidic crater lake. On the Origin of El Chichón Volcano and Subduction of Tehuantepec Ridge: A Geodynamical Perspective En 2000, on enregistra une hausse de température de l'eau du lac, laissant présager un regain d'activité de la part du volcan. Plus de dix grandes éruptions explosives se sont produites depuis le milieu de l'Holocène. du Mexique, sans activité dangereuse connue au cours de la période historique, le Chichón, a fait une très violente éruption, qui a comporté l'émission de nuages de cendres et de nuées ardentes. In little under a week, the presumed dormant volcano produced three plinian eruptions (March 29, April 3, and April 4). With the sobering lessons of El Chichón still fresh, scientists and governmental officials had a higher awareness of possible disastrous outcome when Tacaná Volcano began to exhibit unrest in late 1985. Chiapas, Mexico. ADDED. The basement rocks are folded into generally northwest-trending anticlines and synclines. Introduction In 1982 El Chichón volcano had a violent plinian eruption that devastated an area of approximately 153 km2 surrounding the volcano (Sigurdsson et al., 1984). Three major eruptions of tephra occurred between that date and 7 April, discharging approximately 0.3 cubic kilometer of andesitic pyroclastic material. It crossed nobody’s mind that it might be waking up. Deux autres grands cratères sont situés sur les flancs sud-ouest et sud-est. Key words: El Chichón volcano, tephrochronology, palynology, late holocene eruptions, maya lowlands, Mexico. Before its devastating eruption in 1982, El Chichón Volcano was little known and did not appear on any listings of hazardous volcanoes. The basement rocks are folded into generally northwest-trending anticlines and synclines. Subsequent geologic studies, based on stratigraphic and radiocarbon investigations, showed that at least three explosive eruptions had occurred previously at this volcano. 1B) contain two dis-tinct tephra layers (Fig. Chiapas, Mexico. [8], For the El Chichón cloud, the optical depth has been measured to be around 0.3 around mid-visible wavelengths. Geochemistry of the volcano-hydrothermal system of El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico Type Volcan de subduction: Activité : Actif Dernière éruption: 28 mars au 11 septembre 1982 Code GVP: 341120: Observatoire: Aucun Géolocalisation sur la carte : Chiapas. Type Volcan de subduction: Activité : Actif Dernière éruption: 28 mars au 11 septembre 1982 Code GVP: 341120: Observatoire: Aucun Géolocalisation sur la carte : Chiapas. It is a small, but powerful andesitic tuff cone and lava dome complex that occupies an isolated part of the Chiapas region far from other Holocene volcanoes. Les puissantes éruptions explosives de 1982 à forte teneur en soufre, contenant du magma anhydrite, ont détruit le dôme de lave du sommet et ont été accompagnées par des écoulements pyroclastiques qui ont dévasté une zone d'environ huit kilomètres autour du volcan. Fin mars et début avril 1982, un volcan isolé de l'E. Lors de sa dernière éruption le 28 mars 1982, des coulées pyroclastiques et des pluies de cendres ont fait 3 500 victimes. The Eruptions. The climatic effects also triggered winter warming patterns observed within northern hemisphere continents in 1982 and 1983, with temperatures increasing over North America, Europe, and Siberia. El Chichón volcano in southern Mexico forms a broad symmetrical cone with a diameter of 10 km at itsbase and is capped by a 600 m wide crater containing a 80 m high andesitic lava dome. Géolocalisation sur la carte : Mexique. Robock, Alan, 1984: Climate model simulations of the effects of the El Chichón eruption. It is a remote andesitic stratovolcano in the Modern Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (MCVA) with an ago of ~0.2 Ma years. El Chichon volcano became known worldwide after it erupted catastrophically in 1982 and killed an estimated 2,000 people. 3). [5] Generally a volcanic event would induce global cooling, particularly in summer months, however no cooling was seen in the first year after the El Chichón eruption, because the El Niño produced large compensating warming. A cumulative mass of almost 8 million tons of sulfur dioxide was injected into the stratosphere. It is the youngest volcano in the northwestern part of the 150-km-long Chiapanecan volcanic arc. That evening, at 19:35, a major eruption occurred, which is reported by some as the largest event of the El Chichon eruption. El Chichon is an active volcano in northwestern Chiapas, Mexico. El Chichon is not a hot spot or on a diverging plate boundary. Géolocalisation sur la carte : Mexique. [5], The deposition of ash in the surroundings of the volcano varies with distance from the volcano since the ash particles vary in size. Pour consulter un article, cliquez sur son titre après l’avoir positionné au centre du graphe. El Chichón is part of a geologic zone known as the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc. Thank you for helping build the largest language community on the internet. Avant 1982, ce volcan relativement inconnu était fortement boisé et pas plus haut que les pics non volcaniques adjacents. And it was certainly very large, with a total energy was similar or larger than that of the preceding event. Despois de 1982 foi densamente reforestado. El Chichón volcano After several months of increased seismic activity. Fin mars et début avril 1982, un volcan isolé de l'E. The eruption occurred just as the 1982–83 El Niño event was initiating; because of this several scientists suggested that the El Chichón eruption caused the El Niño. Pour consulter un article, cliquez sur son titre après l’avoir positionné au centre du graphe. El Chichon eruption sunset 001.jpg 2,916 × 2,019; 2.81 MB. El Chichón sits in the state of Chiapas in southern Mexico as part of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas Mountains. El Chichon is an active volcano in northwestern Chiapas, Mexico. El Chichon also known as El Chichonal. Key words: El Chichón volcano, tephrochronology, palynology, late holocene eruptions, maya lowlands, Mexico. A diverging is the type of plate boundary that the Hekla volcano formed. east of El Chichón volcano. El Chichón is the youngest of the Quaternary volcanoes forming the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc. Géographie. El Chichón erupted in 1982; prior to this, activity had not occurred since c.1360, although debates in literature occur around an eruption occurring in c.1850. The eruption caused natural dams to form along the Rio Magdalena river, inducing lahars, which destroyed key infrastructure. [2] The eruptions generated a substantial amount of sulfur dioxide and particulates into the atmosphere. Pour consulter un article, cliquez sur son titre après l’avoir positionné au centre du graphe. Par ailleurs il a été constaté une surmortalité de 13 % au niveau national et de 16 % en Haute-Normandie, les principales affections en cause étant les maladies cardiaques ainsi que les pneumonies.[réf. Besides the impact near the volcano, a large area was affected by tephra fall. [2] The powerful 1982 explosive eruptions of high-sulfur, anhydrite-bearing magma destroyed the summit lava dome and were accompanied by pyroclastic flows and surges that devastated an area extending about 8 km around the volcano. Prior to 1982, this relatively unknown volcano was heavily forested and of no greater height than adjacent nonvolcanic peaks. El Chichón Volcano is located in the State of Chiapas (17.36° N, 93.23° W), a region of southeastern Mexico predominantly inhabited by the indigenous Zoque Maya-related ethnic group. Nooren et W.Z. Eruptive History. 2:06. El Chichón is a small, but powerful trachyandesitic tuff cone and lava dome complex that occupies an isolated part of the Chiapas region in SE México far from other Holocene volcanoes. El Chichón est un volcan du Mexique situé à moins d'une vingtaine de kilomètres de la route reliant Villahermosa à Tuxtla Gutiérrez. El Chichón est un volcan du Mexique situé à moins d'une vingtaine de kilomètres de la route reliant Villahermosa à Tuxtla Gutiérrez. Volcanologist and … That evening, at 19:35, a major eruption occurred, which is reported by some as the largest event of the El Chichon eruption. Thus, the most important samples are the ones furthest from the volcano (80 km,[7] 100 km,[8]) due to the fact that they are the most likely to reach the stratosphere. El Chichón is a small, but powerful trachyandesitic tuff cone and lava dome complex that occupies an isolated part of the Chiapas region in SE México far from other Holocene volcanoes. El Chichón sits in the state of Chiapas in southern Mexico as part of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas Mountains. El Chichón Volcano - John Seach. [3] El Chichón is often overlooked in comparison to other historic eruptions, yet the 1982 eruptions provide important lessons on preparation for volcanic disasters and the influence volcanoes can have on climate. nécessaire]. Dallol. (2000). A súa altitude non é maior do que os montes de orixe non volcánica circundantes. El Chichón, volcano, Chiapas, Mexico, 40 mi (59 km) SSW of Villahermosa, rising to 3,478 ft (1,060 m). El Chichón volcano is built upon a late Jurassic-early Cretaceous marine sequence and Tertiary sedimentary rocks (Canul and Rocha, 1981; Duffield et al ., 1984). ADDED. EL CHICHÓN - Duration: 2:06. fuentecica 59,968 views. [5] The variation is said to be a result of volcanic aerosols impact on the atmospheric wind patterns, including the Arctic Oscillation. Seismic and geochemical studies were quickly initiated to monitor activity. Only after these explosions a surge of new studies began to unreveal their volcanic history and impact. It is located in Iceland. These episodes, involving explosive eruptions of sulfur-rich magma and associated dome-growth processes, were apparently separated by intervals of approximately 350 to … El Chichón volcano is located within the Chiapas region of South-East México at an elevation of ~1150 m (GVP, 2007). It is located in Iceland. El Chichón, also known as Chichonal, is an active volcano in Francisco León, north-western Chiapas, Mexico. [1] El Chichón erupted in 1982; prior to this, activity had not occurred since c.1360, although debates in literature occur around an eruption occurring in c.1850.[2]. [3] The origin of El Chichón volcano is poorly understood, and we attempt in this study to demonstrate that the Tehuantepec Ridge (TR), a major tectonic discontinuity on the Cocos plate, plays a key role in determining the location of the volcano by enhancing the slab dehydration budget beneath it. In particular, the 80 km one has shown similarities with stratospheric ash samples.[7]. El Chichón is built on Tertiary siltstone and sandstone, underlain by Cretaceous dolomitic limestone; a 4-km-deep bore hole near the east base of the volcano penetrated this limestone and continued 770 m into a sequence of Jurassic or Cretaceous evaporitic anhydrite and halite. Géographie. The explosion set the scene for the next, and final, events. The water-soluble components present in the highest concentration are Ca2+ and SO42−. Earth's Plates Volcano Type El Chichon is located on a convergent plate boundary, also know as a destructive plate boundary. Listen to the audio pronunciation of El Chichón Volcano on pronouncekiwi. 3), both derived from past eruptions of El Chichón as we could con-firm by chemical fingerprinting of volcanic glass particles (Fig. With more than 600 years since the last major eruption of El Chichón, few people were aware of the volcanic risk. This is problematic, since ash samples are collected from the ground in order for the optical and chemical properties to be measured which too will vary with distance from the volcano. Be the first to submit your climbing note! 17.33 N, 93.20 W summit elevation 1060 m Lava domes . Introduction . For ash samples around 100 km away from the volcano, the presence of the soluble and non soluble components has been identified. El Chichón volcano has generated three types of pyroclastic flows . El Chichon is an andesite stratovolcano of Quaternary age situated in forested terrain of north-central Chiapas, Mexico. El Chichón, also known as Chichonal, is an active volcano in Francisco León, north-western Chiapas, Mexico. El Chichón Climbing Notes. It was a VEI-5 eruption, injecting 7 million metric tonnes of sulfur dioxide and 20 million metric tonnes total of particulate material into the stratosphere,[5] which circulated the Earth in three weeks. Pinatubo erupted again in late August 1992, killing more than 72 people. Be the first to submit your climbing note! Both types of flows occured at El Chichon. Search this site. Lava domes 1150 m / 3,773 ft Southern Mexico, 17.36°N / -93.23°W Eruption list: 1982 (Plininan eruption on 28 March), 1850(?) Geologic and radiometric-age data indicate that El Chichón was frequently and violently active during the Holocene, including eruptive episodes about 600, 1250, and 1700 years ago and several undated, older eruptions. du Mexique, sans activité dangereuse connue au cours de la période historique, le Chichón, a fait une très violente éruption, qui a comporté l'émission de nuages de cendres et de nuées ardentes. Today it consists of a 1km wide, 300m deep crater with a crater lake that strongly signifies recent volcanic activity 1. Type: Caldera . radiocarbon-dated: 1360 ± 100, 1190 ± 150, 780 AD ± 100, 590 AD ± 100, 480 AD ± 200, 190 AD ± 150, 20 BC ± 50, 700 BC ± 200, 1340 BC ± 150, 2030 BC ± 100, 6510 BC ± 75 years | More on VolcanoDiscovery. Le volcan est situé dans la partie ouest de la sierra Madre de Chiapas, à 68 kilomètres au nord de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, dans l'État du Chiapas. Prior to 1982, this relatively unknown volcano was heavily forested and of no greater height than adjacent nonvolcanic peaks. Consider things such as access and accommodation at the base of El Chichón, as well as the logistics of climbing to the summit. El Chichón is a complex of domes with a tuff ring, made of ejected volcanic material, located between the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Central America Volcanic Arc. Volcanic eruptions and climate. The first reconstruction(s) of the stratigraphic successions carried out at the volcano shortly after the eruption suggested a long record of eruptive activity in the geologic past. The column reached a height close to 30 kilometer. "Looking Back at the 1982 eruption of El Chichon in Mexico", "Preliminary chemical and petrographic results of the March–April "El Chichon" volcanics", Photo of El Chichón in March 1981, prior to eruption, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=El_Chichón&oldid=990114009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 November 2020, at 22:06. The total damage caused by the 1982 eruption is believed to amount to $55 million[2] (equivalent to $132 million in present-day US dollars). Today it consists of a 1km wide, 300m deep crater with a crater lake that strongly signifies recent volcanic activity 1. El Chichón est un petit cône de tuf trachyandésitique à dôme de lave qui occupe une partie isolée de la région du Chiapas au Sud-Est du Mexique, loin des autres volcans datant de l'Holocène. C.A. [4] A total of 9 villages were completely destroyed, killing 1,900 people. E El Chichón eruption in 1982‎ (6 F) Media in category "El Chichón" The following 4 files are in this category, out of 4 total. For volcanoes with long repose time between eruptions, it isn't too surprising how little has happened at El Chichón since 1982′s events. It crossed nobody’s mind that it might be waking up. Rechercher dans le dictionnaire. El Chichón, also known as Chichonal, is an active volcano in Francisco León, north-western Chiapas, Mexico. Other articles where El Chichón is discussed: Mount Pinatubo: …that thrown up by the El Chichón volcano (1982), making Pinatubo perhaps the largest eruption of the 20th century. Ces dernières ont parcouru plusieurs vallées de son flanc S.O., détruisant complètement divers villages. [6] The amount of sulfur dioxide is comparable to the 20 million tonnes of the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo. 1982 Eruption. El Chichón is the youngest of the Quaternary volcanoes forming the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc. El Chichón est un volcan du Mexique situé à moins d'une vingtaine de kilomètres de la route reliant Villahermosa à Tuxtla Gutiérrez. Ces dernières ont parcouru plusieurs vallées de son flanc S.O., détruisant complètement divers villages. The caldera is filled with a shallow acidic lake that has a blue-green color, common to caldera lakes elsewhere. Cette éruption étant très riche en soufre, elle provoqua en janvier 1985 un hiver particulièrement rude en Europe. Both types of flows occured at El Chichon. Consultez la liste des tâches à accomplir en page de discussion. The column reached a height close to 30 kilometer. El Chichón Volcano is located in the State of Chiapas (17.36° N, 93.23° W), a region of southeastern Mexico predominantly inhabited by the indigenous Zoque Maya-related ethnic group. El Chichón erupted explosively in 1982 killing more than 2000 people being the worst volcanic disaster in Mexico, and Tacaná produced two mild phreatic explosions in 1950 and 1986. Please submit any useful information about climbing El Chichón that may be useful to other climbers. Hoek, L.A. Tebbens, A.L. And it was certainly very large, with a total energy was similar or larger than that of the preceding event. [5] Consider things such as access and accommodation at the base of El Chichón, as well as the logistics of climbing to the summit. El Chichón. RECHERCHER. El Chichón volcano is built upon a late Jurassic-early Cretaceous marine sequence and Tertiary sedimentary rocks (Canul and Rocha, 1981; Duffield et al ., 1984). Geologic and radiometric-age data indicate that El Chichón was frequently and violently active during the Holocene, including eruptive episodes about 600, 1250, and 1700 years ago and several undated, older eruptions. El Chichón became famous for its 1982 eruption. Lava domes 1150 m / 3,773 ft Southern Mexico, 17.36°N / -93.23°W Eruption list: 1982 (Plininan eruption on 28 March), 1850(?) El Chichón volcano eruptions. Digital elevation model showing the area around El Chichón Volcano and the towns that were obliterated or damaged by ashfalls and pyroclastic flows and surges of the 1982 eruptions. Most presumed it to be a dormant volcano or extinct. El Chichón é o volcán máis ao Sur e ao Leste no México. Subsequent geologic studies, based on stratigraphic and radiocarbon investigations, showed that at least three explosive eruptions had occurred previously at this volcano. There have also been traces of Na+, K+, Mg2+, HCO3− and Cl−. These episodes, involving explosive eruptions of sulfur-rich magma and associated dome-growth processes, were apparently separated by intervals of approximately 350 to 650 years. El Chichón is at the most North-Western extent of the MCVA which is thought to be ~3 Ma years old (Manea and Manea, 2008; Simkin and Siebert, 1994). Dallol. The basement rocks are folded into generally northwest-trending anticlines and synclines. EL CHICHÓN (volcan) Cliquez sur un titre d’article pour afficher sa carte mentale. Son point culminant atteint environ 1 150 mètres d'altitude. EL CHICHÓN (volcan) Cliquez sur un titre d’article pour afficher sa carte mentale. The total volume of the eruption was much smaller than the famous eruption of Pinatubo in 1991; however El Chichón's impacts were equally significant on global climate. Robock, Alan and Michael Matson, 1983: Circumglobal transport of the El Chichón volcanic dust cloud. El Chichon is an andesite stratovolcano of Quaternary age situated in forested terrain of north-central Chiapas, Mexico. Véxase tamén Ligazóns externas. Hekla last erupted in 2000. Pour consulter un article, cliquez sur son titre après l’avoir positionné au centre du graphe. radiocarbon-dated: 1360 ± 100, 1190 ± 150, 780 AD ± 100, 590 AD ± 100, 480 AD ± 200, 190 AD ± 150, 20 BC ± 50, 700 BC ± 200, 1340 BC ± 150, 2030 BC ± 100, 6510 BC ± 75 years | More on VolcanoDiscovery. El Chichon also known as El Chichonal. Today marks the 30th anniversary of Mexico's eruption of El Chichón, a seemingly dormant volcano that killed at least 1,900 people living nearby. El Chichón Climbing Notes. selon les recommandations des projets correspondants. Rose, 1990, The injection of sulfuric acid aerosols in the stratosphere by El Chichón Volcano and its related hazards to the international air traffic, Natural Hazards, 3: 59-67. El Chichón volcano eruptions. El Chichón is part of a geologic zone known as the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc. However, prior to its last major eruption in 1982, El Chichón went practically unknown as a volcano. Martin Del Pozzo, « Tephrochronological evidence for the late Holocene eruption history of El Chichon Volcano, Mexico ». About. They had no reason to rush because El Chichón, the volcano in the region, had been dormant for 6 centuries. Geochemistry of the volcano-hydrothermal system of El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico After yesterday's retrospective on the 30th anniversary of the eruption of El Chichón in México, I thought I'd follow up with a bit about what is going on at the today and what the future activity might be for the volcano. Hazards. Le plus grand dôme, l'ancien sommet du volcan, a été formé dans un cratère sommital de 1,6 × 2 km créé il y a environ 220 000 ans. Introduction. This website was created as part of an assignment for a volcanology class at the University of Idaho/Washington State University in order to give an overview of El Chichón Volcano in Chiapas, México. El Chichón est un petit cône de tuf trachyandésitique à dôme de lave qui occupe une partie isolée de la région du Chiapas au Sud-Est du Mexique, loin des autres volcans datant de l'Holocène. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 1 octobre 2020 à 15:58. Il résulte de la subduction (plongement) de la plaque Cocos, côté Pacifique, sous les plaques des Caraïbes et Amérique du Nord, côté mer des Caraïbes. 2:06. RECHERCHER. Subcategories . Three major eruptions of tephra occurred between that date and 7 April, discharging approximately 0.3 cubic kilometer of andesitic pyroclastic material. El Chichón Volcano - John Seach. On the Origin of El Chichón Volcano and Subduction of Tehuantepec Ridge: A Geodynamical Perspective English: El Chichón is a lava dome volcano in Chiapas, Mexico that erupted violently in 1982. The 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano ejected more than 1km 3 of anhydrite-bearing trachyandesite pyroclastic material to form a new 1-km-wide and 300-m-deep crater and uncovered the upper 500m of an active volcano-hydrothermal system. [8], The non-soluble part consists mostly of SiO2 (around 59%) and Al2O3 (around 18%) along with trace amounts (less than 5%) of other components, such as CaO, Na2O and Fe2O3. Les éruptions ont créé un nouveau cratère d'un kilomètre de large, profond de 300 mètres, qui contient maintenant un lac acide[1]. El Chichón is a complex of domes with a tuff ring, made of ejected volcanic material, located between the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Central America Volcanic Arc. Avant 1982, ce volcan relativement inconnu était fortement boisé et pas plus haut que les pics non volcaniques adjacents. [7], Aerial view on 1982-11-04, seven months after the eruption, Robock, Alan, 2001: Volcanic eruption, El Chichón. Google Maps . El Chichón is … It El Chichon Based on these results, the real part of the refractive index of the stratospheric El Chichon ash is estimated around 1.52, while the imaginary part is expected to be slightly less than the one measured for the ground samples. However, some samples are of greater interest than others. El Chichón, also known as Chichonal, is an active volcano in Francisco León, north-western Chiapas, Mexico.El Chichón is part of a geologic zone known as the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc. As a result of the simultaneous eruption and El Niño, the climate felt the impacts of both, making it challenging to separate their effects on temperature. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Édifié il y a environ 220 000 ans, El Chichón culmine à 1 102 mètres d’altitude. These flows partly filled existing topography with up to 10-m thick deposits and had a minimum Reviews of Geophysics, 38(2), 191-219, Francis, P., and Oppenheimer, C., 2004, Volcanoes, Oxford University Press, 521pp. É un pequeno mais poderoso cono de escouras que ocupa unha zona illada da rexión de Chiapas. They had no reason to rush because El Chichón, the volcano in the region, had been dormant for 6 centuries. This caldera formed during the very explosive El Chichon eruptions of 1982 and is a few hundred meters deep and about a kilometer wide. It's history, eruptions, latest news, pictures + some facts and info about. Also known as Chichonal, it had not erupted significantly in historic times until 1982, when a violent eruption created a crater .6 mi (1 km) wide and 984 ft (300 m) deep, killed some 2,000 people, and affected some 9,000 sq mi (24,000 sq km) in several Mexican states. 17.33 N, 93.20 W summit elevation 1060 m Lava domes . On enregistra des températures bien au-dessous de la normale par exemple dans le pays de Bray, en Seine-Maritime, le thermomètre est descendu à moins 22 °C, ce qui mit à mal beaucoup de plantes exotiques qui ne résistèrent pas à ce froid exceptionnel. Un dôme de lave remplit le cratère sud-ouest et un dôme plus ancien est situé sur le flanc nord-ouest. 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