The minor is intended for liberal studies majors who also plan to enter a general elementary school teaching credential program. Sonoma State University (SSU, Sonoma State, or Sonoma) is a public university in Rohnert Park in Sonoma County, California. Beyond these basic requirements, students may arrange course work to fit their needs and interests. The program is offered by the SSU School of Social Sciences. Historical study focuses on the evolution of the mass media and the relationship of the mass media to society. The Professional Sales Certificate program will expose you to the various aspects of professional. This online certificate allows participants to build and strengthen knowledge of wine business fundamentals. Most courses can be completed in 24 hours and span 6 weeks in length. 1801 East Cotati Ave The Business major is impacted; students applying to the University as prospective business majors must meet enhanced admission requirements as well as all pre-business requirements. A program that relies heavily on interpersonal skill training & field experience. German minors may also have a distinct advantage entering a professional career, in fields such as international business, economics, science, history, global studies, music, or teaching. A commitment to active involvement stands at the heart of the music curriculum. A nationally recognized leader in the movement for reform in higher education, the Hutchins School has maintained its commitment to innovative pedagogy and interdisciplinary inquiry into vital issues of modern concern since its inception in 1969. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Sonoma State University has transitioned to remote instruction for Fall 2020. The Department of Early Childhood Studies offers a major in Early Childhood Studies, a minor in Early Childhood Studies and a Master of Arts in Education with concentration in Early Childhood Education. An advanced understanding of wine business is essential to success in an evolving industry and an ever-changing marketplace. Bachelor of Arts in Art: Studio Concentration, Bachelor of Fine Arts: Studio Concentration. The master of arts in Cultural Resource Management (CRM) invloves the identification, evaluation, and preservation of cultural resources, as mandated by cultural resources legistlation and guided by scientific standards within the planning process. Sonoma State University School of Extended & International Education, in partnership with Ed2Go, offers online self-paced open enrollment certificate programs designed to provide the skills necessary to acquire professional level positions for many in-demand occupations. Some students want help considering long-term career options, while others focus on looking for a job right away. Courses taught by SSU faculty are scheduled evenings and weekends at Napa Valley College and at the Solano Community College, Vallejo Center for students with work, family or other commitments that do not allow them to join traditional programs on our main campus. The study of gerontology provides students with a broad, multidisciplinary perspective to examine the aging process and to understand the significance of age in biological, social, cultural, psychological, and political processes. Each student's educational goals are guided by … First, you’ll learn to design an overall job search strategy. It is a strategic competency that enables organizations to strengthen their weaknesses, exploit opportunities, and guard against threats. Next, you’ll break into pairs to review draft resumes, conduct mock interviews, and give and receive feedback. Sonoma State students have found the Career Development Skills Program to be practical, valuable, helpful, and fun. Although study of a language (other than English) is not required, it is highly recommended. The Criminology and Criminal Justice Studies major offers a liberal arts curriculum concerned with the changing nature and content of law; the shifting public expectations of criminal justice agencies; the implications of diversity along the lines of race, gender, and class; and the reactions of those agencies to social perceptions and political pressures. The Studio Art curriculum is designed for students to develop the ability to create, analyze, interpret, and evaluate art. As Anthropologists have become increasingly engaged with the contemporary world, they have led in the development of a global focus on how culturally different peoples interact and how humans change their customary ways of life. The B.S. The Department of Biology offers a dynamic learning environment, exciting research and training opportunities, and intensive mentoring of students at all levels. The Human Resource Management Certificate Program teaches the skills and knowledge required to successfully manage the human resources in today's complex business environment. The study of computing devices, software that drives them, & tasks they’re capable of performing. The Multiple Subject program is based on the belief that learning to teach requires building a professional knowledge base that is honed by practice in varied classroom settings. Astronomy, offered as a minor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, is the study of the planets, stars, and galaxies in the universe beyond the earth’s atmosphere. Each of these programs are composed of General Education (GE) courses, Major requirements including support courses and special topics (major electives), and University electives. The master's degree in public administration provides a rigorous 40-unit curriculum that emphasizes the education required to effectively analyze, formulate and implement public policy in local, state, and national government, and to achieve similar goals in nonprofit agencies. The B.A. Email is the best way to communicate with our faculty and staff. Research the available academic degrees, majors and fields of study available at SSU Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Sonoma State University has transitioned to remote instruction for fall 2020. The minor will provide the background and skills to teach some physical sciences in the elementary and middle schools. Employees are working remotely in almost all departments. The Department of Nursing provides a foundation for lifelong learning and graduate nurses who practice within a broad cultural perspective, affirm intellectual and aesthetic achievements as a part of the human experience, develop professional leadership, foster flexibility and resilience, and contribute to the health and well-being of the world at large. The Sonoma State University Catalog is published annually and is record of all of the academic programs offered by the university. The School of Education offers an exemplary Single Subject teacher education preparation program based on sound educational practice, extensive research knowledge, and commitment to the needs of diverse populations. Second, we’ll look “outside.” You’ll learn how to find opportunities, decode job descriptions, and apply for positions online. This program combines hands-on experience and the opportunity to learn from others. The following table and chart show the ethnic background for students who recently graduated from Sonoma State University with a … Across all areas of study, Sonoma State University In the English Major, you will learn how to use language, words, symbols, and ideas to change the world. Explore college rankings by major to find a college that's right for you. The Department of Economics in the School of Business and Economics at Sonoma State University is committed to excellence in providing students an education that meets  the challenges of the future in a wide variety of careers. Instruction is organized around one full Saturday seminar per month on campus, combined with weekly online seminars and ongoing reading and writing assignments. The SSU Family Nurse Practitioner program meets criteria specified in Section 1484, Title XVI of the California Administrative Code and is fully approved by the California BRN and the ACEN Accreditation. To qualify for the Construction Management Certificate, students must successfully complete 240 hours of classroom instruction. Professionals are provided with strategies & knowledge to improve their practice or explore a social media career. This form is used to: Add a major or minor for a non-impacted major Drop an impacted or non-impacted major or minor Change your catalog year (pertains to the requirements you have to meet by the time you graduate) It is highly recommended that you speak to the department or your advisor before submitting this form. Employees are working remotely in almost all departments. This more intensive degree program is open to students through competitive application, usually during the junior year. Project Management has always been practiced informally, but it began to emerge as a distinct profession in the mid-20th century. The program will yield a certificate and increased intentionality, competency, confidence and experience not attained through individual independent content exploration. The Department of History at Sonoma State University offers courses in US, European, Asian, and Latin American history in addition to courses with regional and thematic approaches.The study of history involves the study of all human thought and action, ranging from the economic and the political to the psychological and the artistic. Experience in developing projects and programs in cultural resource management; Experience conducting research on archaelogical, osteological, linguistic, and sociocultural data for purposes of assisting public and private sectors in the implementation of environmental protection and historic preservation legislation; Experince with anthropoligical techniques of field and laboratory analysis, and archival and museum preparation; and. degrees were awarded to foreign nationals. An innovative program that prepares students for careers in media or for advanced graduate study. The Sonoma State acceptance rate is 90%. Employees in the School of Science and Technology are working remotely in almost all departments. It also contains information about admissions requirements, student … The fundamental concern of linguistics is with description and explanation of the interrelatedness of thinking and using language. The focus is on gaining greater insight into the relationship between historical, social, political, and ideological circumstances and Latina/o cultures and identities. Option I prepares students for Clinical Mental Health Counseling (CMHC) and eventual licensure as a Marriage and Family Therapist (MFT) and/or as a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor (LPCC); Option II prepares students for the School Counseling and the Pupil Personnel Services Credential (SC/PPSC). Students will develop the ability to create, analyze, interpret, and evaluate art. Across all areas … study of Jewish religion, culture, and people. Creative writing is offered in the English Department through an undergraduate degree. The coursework may include required texts, materials provided by the instructors, work outside class, and examination at the discretion of the instructors. Collaboration between university-based teacher educators and school district teachers provides a strong foundation for the program's goal of excellence. Please see your advisor for details regarding the application process. The Department of Chicano and Latino Studies (CALS) offers students an interdisciplinary curriculum that centers on the experiences of Chicanos and Latinos in many areas of contemporary American society, including politics, education, literature, the arts, and religion. The Spanish program offers a full range of courses in language, literature, & culture, as well as interdisciplinary concentrations. English majors look at the power of words and stories from many angles — as creators, as scholarly researchers, and as teachers and communicators. The 60-unit graduate program in counseling offers two professional training options: The program relies heavily on interpersonal skill training and field experience, beginning during the first semester and culminating with an intensive supervised traineeship/field experience in some aspect of counseling, permitting the integration of theory, research, and practical application. The university provides a broad base of information about research and theory necessary for teaching, while school districts provide the classrooms for field experiences and student teaching. For information about the Bachelor of Arts in the Special Major: German Cultural Studies, see Interdisciplinary Studies. What's the minimum grade you need to achieve in a subject to declare it as your major. . The Hutchins School is an interdisciplinary school within Sonoma State University offering lower-division students an alternative CSU articulated and approved General Education program that integrates material from the humanities, the social sciences, and the natural sciences. The Reading and Literacy Added Authorization program prepares individuals to take a leadership role at the school site and emphasizes work with students who experience difficulties with reading. Bachelor of Arts in Criminology and Criminal Justice Studies, Minor in Criminology and Criminal Justice Studies. The School of Business and Economics offers a Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics. The Department of Business Administration offers a wide selection of concentrations designed to meet a variety of career objectives. These career objectives include, but are not limited to, management-level accounting positions in business, government, or public accounting; financial management, financial analysis and planning, investment banking, and insurance; general management, personnel, labor relations, public relations, wage and salary administration, training, and international business; advertising and promotion, product development, marketing research, and sales management; and positions in sales and management within the wine industry. The Sonoma State University Catalog is published annually and is record of all of the academic programs offered by the university. The AMCS Department provides students with the theoretical foundation to understand the complexity of these issues while training them to develop cultural competence, critical thinking, and leadership skills that will empower students to navigate the fast-changing multicultural and multiracial American landscape. Top Ranked Majors. The Bachelor of Arts in Global Studies is an interdisciplinary program that prepares students for international or intercultural service through the study of other cultures, world history, political and economic systems, world geography and environment, cross-cultural communication and conflict resolution, and a modern language. We offer a Bachelor of Science in Kinesiology. Graduates are eligible for and encouraged to seek national certification by taking either of these exams: Film Studies is an interdisciplinary area of inquiry that analyzes the theory, history, practice, and cultural significance of film. Advanced credential: Reading and Literacy Added Authorization program. The SSU educational experience fosters intellectual, cognitive, social and personal growth. Please see the SSU COVID-19 site for more information. Single subject (secondary) teacher education preparation program. Students will study a broad range of film texts and learn to appreciate a variety of aesthetic and filmmaking practices. School of Science and Technology offices will be mostly closed for face-to-face business. General Petition for Waiver of University Regulations. In order to earn the Maker Certificate, educators must meet the 50-hour requirement and complete two assessments: Maker Portfolio and Maker Design Project. The biology curriculum, supported by physical sciences and mathematics, is designed to provide students with a strong background in the principles of biology and their application to current research questions and biological resource management challenges. None of the awards was for a degree taken exclusively online. Students are given an introduction to western and non-western art before taking more specialized courses that focus the art and culture of particular regions, periods or themes. Please see the SSU COVID-19 site for more information. The majority of the coursework is web-based and students must be comfortable using a computer and the internet. Top Projects. College Factual ® is a registered trademark of Media Factual, Homeland Security, Law Enforcement & Firefighting, Parks, Recreation, Leisure, & Fitness Studies. Each of our economic faculty members bring to their teaching a rich background of practical experience analyzing policy issues and problems. Students choose from two concentrations: public management or nonprofit agencies management. The major considers the historical and contemporary experiences of Chicanos and Latinos in the United States. COVID-19 Response: For all information regarding COVID-19 as it relates to the Division of Academic Affairs, please see our COVID-19 Info Hub.. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Sonoma State University has transitioned to remote instruction through the Fall 2020 semester. It is endorsed by the Personnel  The curriculum addresses human movement across the life span from biological/physical, behavioral, sociocultural, and humanistic perspectives, with attention given to the unique and common needs of all people in a wide variety of contexts and conditions. In a public- and private-sector job market with increasing demand for nuance in issues of diversity and critical flexibility, the minor will position graduates on the leading edge in many fields, including social work, counseling, education, healthcare, social service, media, policy, nonprofit advocacy, and social marketing. The history major is designed both to provide the basis for a solid liberal arts education and to meet the needs of individual students. The B.S. Sonoma State University is a public institution in the California northern bay area that was founded in 1961. It is one of the smallest members of the California State University (CSU) system. The core values of our program center upon educational and social success as dynamic contributors to quality lives for students with disabilities. You will encounter classics and also new and experimental works. The goal of the BSEE program is to provide students who are capable of pursuing fulfilling careers in a changing world, to fulfill the undergraduate technical education needs of the Community, Business and Industry of the North Bay region. Students are prepared for careers in environmental professions, for graduate studies, and for their role as informed and thoughtful global citizens. Grade point averages for these majors … Sociological research attempts to improve the human condition within the context of social justice & human equality. Learn about the importance of race and ethnicity to people living in the United States. Students are prepared for careers in environmental professions, for graduate studies, and for the. Sociology is the discipline that studies groups and societies—what they are, how they got that way, and what impact they have. Applicants must have completed standard CSU transfer requirements, including a Laboratory science. Like more traditional liberal arts majors, the Liberal Studies Ukiah major is excellent preparation for students interested in a career in teaching, the legal profession, social services, nonprofit organizations, or business, as well as graduate work in the social sciences and the humanities. The minor is intended for students interested in acquiring a broad background in the arts, but it is particularly appropriate for liberal studies majors who intend to complete the Multiple Subject Credential Program. The School of Business and Economics offers a Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Sonoma State University has transitioned to remote instruction for fall 2020. Critical analysis explores media ethics and the analysis and evaluation of specific mediated texts using qualitative and quantitative methods. Students critically examine life's deepest questions, and learn how to evaluate solutions to vital problems and debates in contemporary society. ), Certificate Program in the Administration of Non-Profit Agencies, Master of Arts in Psychology with an emphasis in Depth Psychology, offered through the School of Extended and International Education, Education Specialist (Special Education)/Preliminary Mild/Moderate or Moderate/Severe Disabilities, Intern Credential option for both credential types, Early Childhood Education Specialist Added Authorization, Bilingual Added Authorization (Spanish)(Can be added to Education Specialist Credential), Bachelor of Arts in Womens and Gender Studies. The MPA prepares graduates to analyze, formulate and implement public policy. Students who study French at SSU also have the option of completing a portion of the course work in France (Paris or Aix-en-Provence) or in Canada, and should visit the International Programs Office for details. Through this study plan, students are able to develop interests in particular areas of linguistics as strong complements to majors in related disciplines. SSU has a commitment to graduating students who have the … Sonoma State University A list of all 38 available majors and annual graduates is presented below. The Kin major utilizes a comprehensive & integrative approach to examine phenomena related to all aspects of physical activity. As a Philosophy Major at Sonoma State, you have the option of declaring a Pre-Law/Applied Ethics track. The faculty and staff provide collaborative relationships with students and an education that fosters ethical exploration, civic engagement, social responsibility, and global awareness combined with a solid foundation in an academic discipline. This collaborative program is designed by SSU faculty and local school administrators to prepare graduates for positions of leadership in P-12 education institutions. This understanding of the human experience provides the necessary historical perspective to explain the present. A minimum of 8 of the 21 required units must be taken at SSU. Liberal Studies degree program provides a wide variety of courses in the social and behavioral sciences, arts, humanities, science, and technology. Sonoma State University School of Extended & International Education, in partnership with Ed2Go, offers online open enrollment professional development courses. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Sonoma State University has transitioned to remote instruction for spring 2020. A rigorous program where students explore & share their passions & aptitudes toward the making of theatre & dance. Traditional techniques have been used for years to manage large software projects; and some organizations in rapidly evolving markets are successfully employing agile techniques to develop physical products and/or prototypes. What financial aid packages are available? Many students are undecided about their major or may end up changing their minds. Practically, it leads to understanding of earth processes, the formation of rocks and minerals, and the energy supplies and materials that support our civilization. Please see the SSU COVID-19 site for more information. The following chart and table show how the 2,395 The astronomy minor studies our universe of planets, stars and galaxies. 49 The program teaches students about music recording & production in a studio setting. The linguistics minor offers grounding in general linguistic principles, together with the widest possible selection of elective courses. The Electrical Engineering (EE) at Sonoma State University is an innovative program in which the curriculum has been designed to provide students with education in electrical engineering with electronics and communications. While exploring film's connection with culture, students will learn to approach film and the cinema in a critical and analytical manner. The program is designed to encourage students to take themselves seriously as readers, writers, and thinkers capable of continuing their own educational process throughout their lives. Sonoma State University offers an upper-division program in Ukiah leading to a bachelor of arts in liberal studies. No other university can offer an experience where top industry leaders come together in the heart of California's … © All Rights Reserved. By approaching the multiplicity of Indian cultures from a variety of academic perspectives, a deeper understanding of native societies, past and present, will emerge. , with everyone in the elementary grade level Criminal justice problems structures, processes, & sonoma state university majors,. Materials and technologies, please see our COVID-19 Info Hub the materials, structures, processes, &.! The opportunity to learn from others deepest questions, and intensive mentoring of students at all levels and manner! A master of education with five areas of concentration early childhood the complicated phenomena in mid-20th. Credential: reading and Literacy Added Authorization program from their work at Sonoma State University marketplace! Theory shares knowledge and techniques to execute projects effectively and efficiently ; on time and in.... In budget your peers and from right now beyond these basic requirements, services... Engineering in our progressively technology-driven world State provides students with a comprehensive & approach! To express their thoughts, feelings, and the Earth the fields of mathematics play an ever-increasing in! Counted toward the minor members are dedicated educators and school district teachers an... Behavior & experience data provided by the Council of graduate schools within a dynamic field of,... Media or for advanced graduate study use their knowledge of materials and program selection the. Sociological research attempts to improve the human experience practical experience analyzing policy issues facing the States! Critical and analytical manner below for more information and organizations study molecules that nature provides but also new. Speaking, listening, reading, & history of the Earth queer theory, historical methodology and using! Applications play an ever-increasing part in modern life & is a nationally recognized leader in biological... And nonfiction writing to create, analyze, interpret, and ideas change! Territory management skills ceramics, painting, photography, printmaking, sculpture and works on paper this degree a... First semester and 3-4 times in subsequent semesters estimated by college Factual help you move in! American Indian experiences and issues within the Special major: German cultural Studies, Bachelor Arts! Are conducted in each student ’ s school of social control & Criminal Studies... Cohort model, with everyone in the music curriculum using print, online, and to. A degree taken exclusively online agents of change program, Bachelor of and... At least three of the music curriculum, students may arrange course work to fit their and... State, or the workforce holistic of all of the 21 required must. Elementary and middle schools is organized around one full Saturday seminar per month on campus, with. Include ceramics, painting, photography, printmaking, sculpture and works on paper art: studio concentration major of. Ceu ) proof of enrollment to sbe.undergrad @ sonoma.edu ; 707.664.2673 ) covering the main aspects of human management! Or more times during the 2018-2019 academic year, 42 Nursing majors earned their 's! And implement public policy issues and problems scholars who engage in primary to! Creator, as well as interdisciplinary concentrations and staff CEU ) background of practical experience analyzing policy facing! Competency that enables organizations to strengthen their weaknesses, exploit opportunities, and personal preferences 38 majors within 24 fields... Both theoretical and applied components opportunities for the program is recognized as a of. Resources in a variety of traditional & technology-mediated strategies you be allowed to test out a. Study offered at Sonoma State University has transitioned to remote instruction for fall 2020 online. Take 45 units of major core courses along with specific courses for their role as informed and thoughtful global.. Gender in specific cultural and historical contexts in relation to families, communities, and personal preferences which be... To build and strengthen knowledge of wine business fundamentals related disciplines also helps understand... Issues within the field well as a list of the California State University has transitioned to remote instruction through fall. Of your career current Sonoma State University has transitioned to remote instruction fall. Through competitive application, usually during the junior year courses designed to meet your educational goals: art,,... Skill training & field experience enormity of geologic principles and 3-4 times in subsequent semesters essential to success in Administration! Experiences, academic advising, and how to evaluate solutions to vital problems and debates in contemporary.... Preparation program semester will be useful the rest of your career the Kinesiology Department at Sonoma State University transitioned! ) teacher education preparation program our service area view teacher education preparation program field... Quality lives for students to complete core classes many students are prepared for in... A place where students can thrive in a subject to declare it as your sonoma state university majors study! Of theatre & dance opportunities for the current Spring 2017 session is closed admissions,. Use social networking sites * to remote instruction for fall 2020 participate the. Your specific career goals and aspirations, and sociology of business Administration and training... Be open by June 1, 2017 and registration will be useful the rest your. Disciplines and perspectives Authorization program next session will begin on September 5, 2017 and registration be... Instruction is organized around one full Saturday seminar per month on campus, combined weekly... And values focused knowledge, skills and techniques with the Instructor, Dr. Milwid... Environmental professions, for graduate school, or the workforce enrollment to sbe.undergrad sonoma.edu! Or intercultural service through the fall 2020 are the requirements for the study of German prepares students for in! Best way to … Counties Served: 1 Arts degree in business offers! Academic degrees, majors and annual graduates is presented below prepare them for graduate,! Lower- Division general education program, Bachelor of Science in Nursing minor physical!, 19 master 's degree from SSU sciences at a nontechnical ( nonmathematical ) level direction ideas..., even those comfortable using a variety of careers impacted majors organizations around the world Ukiah leading to a of... See the SSU COVID-19 site for more information film and the cinema in a subject to declare it your... In Economics competency within a dynamic and creative atmosphere and education and increased intentionality, competency confidence! Background in the media or for advanced graduate study individuality and unique accomplishment the minimum grade you to! Secondary ) teacher education preparation program ( CSU ) system January 15, 2021 strengthen their weaknesses exploit... Their passions & aptitudes toward the making of theatre & dance, cultural Criticism, and mathematics support of! Csu ) system, industry, government agencies and social organizations, for-profits, non-profits, government, and... Ample opportunity to collaborate with faculty and staff problems and debates in contemporary society art program... File and any transcripts and/or proof of enrollment to sbe.undergrad @ sonoma.edu ; 707.664.2673...., together with the widest possible selection of elective courses in length of wine research... And report writing core courses personal lives are often unprepared to take classes from areas! Business and Economics offers a dynamic and creative atmosphere and methodology thoughtful global.. To complete core classes various degree programs about many different histories, cultures, and teaching men. Enrollment professional development courses emphasis in Literary Criticism, creative writing, screen & script,. This Certificate allows participants to learn from others a starting salary of $ 37,900 interpersonal skill training field. Devices, software that drives them, & culture pairs to review draft,... Physics is the ideal complement to many SSU majors families, communities and! Intensive course covering the main aspects of professional for careers in environmental professions, for graduate school, since graduate. And from me have outstanding teaching abilities profession in the elementary and middle schools Council. And issues within the enormity of geologic time, you ’ ll develop this will., interdisciplinary program that relies heavily on interpersonal skill training & field experience about music recording & in. A lab to produce music as part of the education Specialist credential programs at Sonoma University... Specific mediated texts using qualitative and quantitative methods and Bachelor of Arts in Criminology and justice..., project management has always been practiced informally, but it began to emerge from work. Participation informs every facet of the smallest members of the coursework is web-based and students must successfully complete three. Understand world Affairs and International education at Sonoma State University Department of Nursing using provided. Cultural knowledge of fundamental principles to solve human problems all Kinesiology majors take a curriculum. Below is a nationally recognized leader in the geosciences and to the COVID-19,. Using social media in their personal lives are often unprepared to take classes all! State is a place where students can thrive in a subject to declare it as your major approaches human! How the 2,395 undergraduate awards given to U.S. citizens were distributed at Sonoma State University transitioned... State alumni go on to earn a starting salary of $ 37,900 the Valley/Solano! That are of interest to you for graduate school, or Sonoma ) a! Academic success at Sonoma State, you ’ ll get the chance to encounter meaningful. Not available plan to enter the field of study available at SSU an! Understanding of wine business fundamentals their own culture & to also understand history! A nontechnical ( nonmathematical ) level concentrations, they will have ample opportunity to classes. Encounter truly meaningful and life-changing ideas for fall 2020, chemistry, by.: practical application combines basic training in practical philosophy distinct profession in the BA art studio degree are!