Two of the drivers of world affairs that manifest in the daily decisions that affect our lives are ideology and religion. While all people need to fulfill the same basic desires, not everyone will turn to religion to satisfy them, Reiss said. Margaret T. Singer, professor of psychology at the University of California at Berkeley, said, ''The techniques of many cults fall under the general rubric of brainwashing.'' Karl Marx, for example, called religion the “opium of the people”. It is very clear and readable, and reflects Michael Argyle’s considerable reputation and experience.’ Fraser Watts, University of Cambridge In addition to these psychological aspects, the ritual behaviour seen in collective worship makes us enjoy and want to repeat the experience. In a study published in 2000, Reiss found that religious people (the study included mostly Christians) expressed a strong desire for interdependence with others. Title: Psychology Of Religion. Essay Details: Subject: Humanities. Daniel C. Dennett (shelved 1 time as psychology-of-religion) In doing so we inevitably have stronger attachments to some individuals more than others. But the things that we form attachments to don’t necessarily need to be in front of us to predict their actions. New book argues international efforts to 'get religion right' are making things worse, A better reference genome for the rhesus macaque, Speed of magnetic domain walls found to be fundamentally limited, Mountain hares in Scotland are failing to adapt to climate change, making them more vulnerable to predators, Giant pulses detected in the pulsar PSR J1047−6709, Smaller-than-average male tree crickets found to boost the sound level of their chirps using baffles, Question About Electric Aircraft Propulsion. The quick and easy answer to why people are religious is that god – in whichever form you believe he/she/they take(s) – is real and people believe because they communicate with it and perceive evidence of its involvement in the world. The development context of these countries put their people in a unique position, experiencing more phenomena at once. Are you sure you want to delete this comment? Standard Edition … "We can test that and find out if there really is a mystical personality type.". For example, religious rituals fulfill the desire for order. Vande Kemp (1992) notes that most psychologists of religion would agree that either William James or G. Stanley Hall must be acknowledged as the founder of the movement. "Religion has to appeal to both introverts and extroverts," Reiss said. The is nothing sacrilegious about drying your wellies on one. Essentially this hypothesis is that religion is a by-product of a number of cognitive and social adaptations which have been extremely important in human development. The psychology that prevailed in my Yale years was predominantly the empirical social psychologists like … part may be reproduced without the written permission. Ideology is the term widely used to describe the underlying set of values, myths, ideas, attitudes, beliefs and doctrine that shape the behavioral approach to political, economic, social, cultural and/or ecological activities of an […] The growth of psychology as a science was stimulated further by the launching of Sputnik in 1957 and the opening of the Russian-American space race to the Moon. Is the concept of "wave function collapse" obsolete? The development context of these countries put their people in a unique position, experiencing more phenomena at once. Many different psychological accounts have been put forth over the years, emphasising different determinants, and taking different stances on whether faith is a good thing or not. "People are attracted to religion because it provides believers the opportunity to satisfy all their basic desires over and over again. British psychologist John Bowlby demonstrated this influence of attachments on children’s emotional and social development, and showed how these can suffer when they are threatened through separation or abuse. (2906 Views) How Religion Draws People Back. You can also choose to be emailed when someone replies to your comment. Want an ad-free experience?Subscribe to Independent Premium. (2906 Views) How Religion Draws People Back. The first cluster proceeds by means of objective, quantitative, and preferably experimental procedures for testing hypotheses regardi… A royal tomb in Pasunga village is flanked by the smaller tombs where servants were buried (sometimes buried alive!) Religion couldn't achieve mass acceptance if it only fulfilled one or two basic desires," said Steven Reiss, a professor emeritus of psychology at The Ohio State University and author of The 16 Strivings for God (Mercer University Press, 2016). It is very clear and readable, and reflects Michael Argyle’s considerable reputation and experience.’ Fraser Watts, University of Cambridge You can find our Community Guidelines in full here. Workplace relationships are influenced by many factors, among which religion is one of the less studied ones, especially in former communist countries. The surprising psychology behind morality is at the heart of social psychologist Jonathan Haidt’s research. "We all share the same 16 goals, but what makes us different is how much we value each one," Reiss said. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no All religious beliefs and practices are designed to meet one or more of these 16 desires, Reiss explained. Click here to sign in with This is part of an "Amazing Arguments" playlist featuring people like Daniel Dennet, Stephen Pinker, Sam Harris, and Christopher Hitchens. Are we talking about Religion in general or specific religions? Our relationships depend on being able to predict how others will behave across situations and time. Length: 6 / 1589. Essentially this hypothesis is that religion is a by-product of a number of cognitive and social adaptations which have been extremely important in human development. spaceman . Throughout history, scholars and researchers have tried to identify the one key reason that people are attracted to religion. Your feedback will go directly to Science X editors. This site uses cookies to assist with navigation, analyse your use of our services, and provide content from third parties. Create a commenting name to join the debate, There are no Independent Premium comments yet - be the first to add your thoughts, There are no comments yet - be the first to add your thoughts. In an effort to minimise economic strain the law stipulates that only 5 buffalo can be sacrificed at funerals - in reality many more are often killed and a big buffalo with a wide horn spread will often fetch close to $4,000. A key point is that each of the 16 desires motivates personality opposites and those opposites all have to find a home in a successful religion, Reiss said. Psychology Definition of RELIGION: Social articulation of beliefs in higher powers, most often exercised within the public arena. For instance, people who believe that the end of the world is imminent might be more likely to withdraw from society. Based on their research, psychologists might anticipate that a particular belief will cause those who believe it to respond in a certain way. The research is described in Reiss's book Who Am I? Catholic imagery on a tomb in Waihola village (near Nihiwatu) shows how imported religions seem often to have blended almost seamlessly with the ancient Marapu religion. Religion, he says, attracts followers because it satisfies all of the 16 basic desires that humans share. This article first appeared on The Conversation (theconversation.com). or, by Jeff Grabmeier, The Ohio State University. The psychological approach to the understanding of faith offers accounts of faith in terms of underlying psychological determinants (needs, wishes, tendencies, etc.). Workplace relationships are influenced by many factors, among which religion is one of the less studied ones, especially in former communist countries. They increase levels of serotonin, dopamine, and oxytocin in the brain – chemicals that make us feel good, want to do things again and provide a closeness to others. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Privacy Policy After all, psychology, since its founding roughly a century ago, has often focused on the opposite topic-namely the psychology of … ‘Psychology and Religion is an authoritative survey of what we know about the psychology of religion. "It's not just about fear of death. Get weekly and/or daily updates delivered to your inbox. Those who were not religious, however, showed a stronger need to be self-reliant and independent. We can imagine what they would do or say. Michael Inzlicht, University of Toronto, opened the “Toward a Cognitive Science of Religion: Insights From Personality and Social Psychology” symposium in a somewhat unorthodox fashion: “By show of hands, who in this room would say they have a personal belief in God or religious affiliation.” "What I'm trying to answer is the nature of why people embrace religion and God. Are you sure you want to mark this comment as inappropriate? Freud, S., ‘The question of a Weltanschauung’ in New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. The extraordinary range of methods and frameworks can be helpfully summed up regarding the classic distinction between the natural-scientificand human-scientific approaches. Some have said people seek religion to cope with a fear of death, others call it the basis for morality, and various other theories abound. Psychology behind morality obsession? Read our full mailing list consent terms here. Not every person’s experience will fit neatly into these following categories, but this list should provide some idea of the range of cults and their reach into every walk of life. Psychology of religion consists of the application of psychological methods and interpretive frameworks to the diverse contents of religious traditions as well as to both religious and irreligious individuals. These cognitive adaptations are facilitated by educational and household norms which don’t tend to dispute religious ideas. Topics: Politics / Society / Religion: Psychology behind morality obsession? Reiss's theory of what attracts people to religion is based on his research in the 1990s on motivation. "I'm not trying to answer theological questions about the existence or nature of God," Reiss said. One of the basic desires - independence - may separate religious and non-religious people. 06 Jun 2011 17:09. It allows our most engaged readers to debate the big issues, share their own experiences, discuss real-world solutions, and more. But in a new book, a psychologist who has studied human motivation for more than 20 years suggests that all these … For example, there is the desire for social contact. You can unsubscribe at any time and we'll never share your details to third parties. After all, psychology, since its founding roughly a century ago, has often focused on the opposite topic-namely the psychology of … We do not guarantee individual replies due to extremely high volume of correspondence. "Religion competes with secular society to meet those 16 needs and can gain or lose popularity based on how well people believe it does compared to secular society," Reiss said. Nairaland Forum / Nairaland / General / Religion / How Religion Works; The Psychology Behind It. While we are encouraged to challenge other ideas presented to us early in childhood that may not have a strong evidence base – such as Father Christmas or the Tooth Fairy – this is not the case with religion. Medical research advances and health news, The latest engineering, electronics and technology advances, The most comprehensive sci-tech news coverage on the web. Vande Kemp (1992) notes that most psychologists of religion would agree that either William James or G. Stanley Hall must be acknowledged as the founder of the movement. Tombs in the centre of Tarung village serve as handy domestic surfaces. The journal publishes articles employing experimental and correlational methods, qualitative analyses, and critical reviews of the literature. Ohio State University Physics Forums | Science Articles, Homework Help, Discussion, Science X Daily and the Weekly Email Newsletter are free features that allow you to receive your favorite sci-tech news updates in your email inbox. The ritual behaviour seen in collective worship makes us enjoy and want to repeat the experience. / A Heart-rending Narrative On How Religion Destroyed 'an Ideal Family' / How Wisdom Brings Greatness Vs How Religion Brings Foolishness (2) (3) (4) It is a small leap from being able to imagine the mind of someone we know to imagining an omnipotent, omniscient, human-like mind – especially if we have religious texts which tell of their past actions. Religion even finds ways to deal with the desire for vengeance, Reiss said. Tombs in the centre of Tarung village serve as handy laundry driers on a sunny Sumba morning. Religious beliefs reflect our unique cognitive ability to detect agency and intention in others and, by extension, in the natural world. For extroverts, religion offers festivals and teaches that God blesses fellowship. 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