A theory of personality which is content-oriented but nevertheless very much in disagreement with the views of the learning theorists is the theory advanced by H.A. These are the most used words in this century but yes it is indeed true that all of us were created differently. Personality has a structural and a functional component. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Some psychologists have criticised these tests because the inference drawn from such tests leads to a lot of confusion and even subjectivity. Content Guidelines 2. We may now briefly deal with some of the more important techniques of personality measurement: Observation of a phenomenon is probably the most natural way of measuring basic psychological processes and personality is no exception. All this ties into the idea of libido, or our desires. Thus some individuals who are confident and even aggressive in most of the situations are rather shy and diffident in a specific situation, say in the company of the opposite sex. Article shared by: ADVERTISEMENTS: Introduction: Human rights are as old as human civilization; but their use and relevance have been well defined during the recent years. Poverty will remain a major human rights issue for decades to come. Thus, researches in the areas of perception, learning and other behavioural processes have shown that these processes are determined by certain stable and consistent factors in the person. Essay # 2. Some people refer to the physical appearance like height, weight, colour, body built, dress, voice, etc. Advanced Search. The life space or psychological space, though at birth is largely undifferentiated, gradually gets differentiated into two regions, an inner person and an outer environment. Functional analysis would therefore go in for careful observation of the behaviour, the situation under which it occurs, study how it has been reinforced in the past, and finally decide upon a more adaptive response like ‘assertive behaviour’, plan a schedule of reinforcement and establish the same behaviour. have been employed to measure personality. It is very useful when time is limited and a large number of people have to be assessed or when the personality score is only one of the many criteria to be taken into account. Personality is the main motivation of the human classification since it provides a chance for every individual to display a certain set of behaviors (Fittskirk & Shohov, 2003). They are like tendencies; a person’s predisposition to react in a certain way in various different situations. Personality is defined as the characteristic sets of behaviors, cognitions, and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors. In view of this, the term personality came to be used as one which explains behaviour rather than described behaviour. This resulted in a discarding of the simple ‘sum-total’ concept of personality and postulation of certain schemes of organisation, and hierarchical order. The psychologists who have been primarily concerned with studying the structure of personality have devoted their efforts in understanding, describing and measuring these various units of personality. The Rorschach Test till today remains one of the best developed projective tests and is widely used. On the other hand, one may take a view, that even the emphasis laid by Freud and Jung on psychic reality as opposed to actual reality may be regarded as phenomenological. Those who subscribe to the cognitive behavioural approach claim that this approach is more helpful in predicting behaviour much more than the approaches based on psychodynamic concepts or disposition. Thus one may see the difference between an “optimist” and a “pessimist”. The Human Personality essaysThe human personality takes many forms and actions. Though this movement is of recent origin, behavioural measures of personality have been found to be very useful, especially in studying the personalities of psychotic patients and even neurotic patients. Damages to personality are often cured by proper treatment. In addition, responses are also categorized as original or popular. At the same time, it has also come in for criticism. There are two breaking points that can turn the task into a real challenge. Attempts of the latter kind are seen in the writings of psychologists like Dollard, Miller, Sears and others who have tried to incorporate the findings of other theories like psychoanalysis in their own theories, while basically retaining the characteristics of the learning theory approach. While lending consistency and organisation to behaviour, personality also lends a sense of uniqueness or ‘individuality’ to behaviour. are analysed. 2. According to Bandura, people’s behaviour patterns, affective and cognitive, influence similar processes in others and also the environment. When we describe a person as an ‘anxious’ personality, the reference here is to the quality of anxiety which is found to be predominant in him. For example, a child does not have a very mark-able distinction between itself and the environment, but gradually this distinction ceases. Here are five essays about the issue that everyone should know: “We need an economic bill of rights” – Martin Luther King Jr. An optimist is always hopeful, and believes that ultimately things will turn out alright. 6. For example, one may see a bird, a tiger skin, and two men dancing in a single ink blot. When this privilege is taken away problems occur. The test however, requires that only a person with considerable experience should use it. It has been shown that behaviour or verbal responses are not simple and direct expressions of the personality. These psychologists established through their research the existence of an authoritarian personality syndrome. A number of incom­plete sentences are given and the individual is required to complete them. It consists of a set of ten ink-blots which are bilaterally symmetrical. This is a ‘spread effect’ and is known as halo error. Some of them are black, some black and red, and the rest in different colours. It has been criticised as being unscientific and mainly descriptive. The responses are analysed for indications of one’s personality. The researches and findings of the psychologists with different approaches have, in-spite of their differences, contributed to the emergence of certain generalisations. However, even though they are influenced by cultural, social and economic factors they are easy and useful instruments. It is called the CAT or the Children’s Apperception Test. This test was developed by Bellak. Welcome to PsychologyDiscussion.net! The personality of an individual has certain characteristics which he shares with others and at the same time certain other characteristics which are unique to him. In all these contexts, it may be seen that this term is used to describe the behaviour of a person in general terms. This process of moving from one region to another is known as ‘locomotion’. In such a situation, where the blots do not convey anything definite, people respond in accordance with their own inner personality dynamics (see Fig. Its related pattern of someone emotions, thoughts, feelings and behavior. The view of Carl Rogers is examined under the topic of self. On the other hand, when one describes a man as having a sociable personality one is describing his behaviour and his responses. Over the years, psychologists have developed a number of questionnaires which have been thoroughly tested for their reliability and validity. This perspective focuses largely on the internal genetic makeup of an individual and the effects this has on his or her personality. It is the total and overall description of a person. This became necessary particularly in the light of researches in psychoanalysis, clinical psychology and social anthropology. Into thinking, feeling, sensation and intuitive types Explanations of Neuroticism two Perspectives on human! A major-part response is called the structural approach to the physical appearance like height, weight, colour body! Us to understand, interpret or predict the behaviour of a number of sentences... Familiar with the concept of identification, originally employed by Freud, but there two... 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