On SlideShare. They dealt with the problems of marriage, justice, law, administration, and strife between capital and labor in their dramas. With the treatment of actual life, the drama became more and more a drama of ideas, sometimes veiled in the main action, sometimes didactically act forth. In a broader sense Expressionism is one of the main currents of art, literature, music, theater, and film in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The drama which had suffered steep decline during the Victorian Age was revived with great force at the beginning of the 20th century and the course of six decades has witnessed many trends and currents in the 20th-century drama.The drama of Advancement of the social science and natural science in the later half of the 19th century and early decades of the 20th century. -> The new theory of psychology and sex gave us â the stream of consciousness novel. For many, humankind was entering upon an unprecedented era. The 20th century was like no time period before it. It is a movement that shows the effects of things and events on the mind of the artist and the attempt of the artist to express his expressions. Modern writers come up with fresh point of view suiting the conventional audience. There is no doubt that the advent of machinery made life comfortable for modern man. Mrs. Morel belongs to a well settled middle class family who is highly ambitious, Lawrence presents her as âa woman of character and refinementâ. The main characters of Ulysses are: An Irish Jew, his wife, Leopold Bloom, Stephen Dedalus and Marion Tweedy Bloom. Modernism, a movement that was a radical break from 19th century Victorianism, led to post-modernism, which emphasized self-consciousness and pop art. American Literary Periods. For the past few years I have been working with this company. She is intelligent, strong-will woman and falls in love with an energetic and sensuous coal miner named Walter Morel. In the hands of the Irish dramatists like Yeats, J.M. Modern period in the English literature begins with the 20th century and remain till 1965. His example was followed by Robertson Arthur Jones, Galsworthy and G. B. Shaw in their plays. Oscar Wild, Maugham, N. Coward, etc. In such cases you can get instant assignment help and learn things in an easier way. Many critics and scholars find it best to define postmodern literature against the popular literary style that came before it: modernism. General Characteristics Of Modern Literature. Modernist literature was a predominantly English genre of fiction writing, popular from roughly the 1910s into the 1960s. Romanticism, which had been very dear to Elizabethan Dramatists found its way in Modern Drama and it was mainly due to Sir J.M. When he dies, it is Paul who becomes her favourite. Sons and Lovers is known as one of the best writings of Lawrence. It can be read in his masterpiece âSons and Loversâ as well. This is a common technique in modernist fiction: fragmentation and non-linear narratives are central features in both modern and postmodern literature. These writers are considered one of the big players of modernist literature. On SlideShare. The modernist American literature produced during the time reflects such themes of destruction and chaos. 38 ... Modernism In Literature Maria Teresa Ciaffaroni. Hi, I am Susan White. The imaginative writing, verses, structure of the verses of Victorian period became obsolete. There were various changes took place in the field of literature also during the modern period. The history of literature in the Modern period in Europe begins with the Age of Enlightenment and the conclusion of the Baroque period in the 18th century, succeeding the Renaissance and Early Modern periods.. He considered the materialism as the prime cause of corruption of the will, dominance of sterile intellect and defeat of real inward passion of humans and distortion of personality. You can know more about me from my LinkedIn profile. Modernism was also a melange of many movements in multiple spheres, art, music, dance, literature, with international origins and complex global interactions. When the first World War ended, a number of literary trends of the modern period such as dadaism, stream of consciousness, futurism, cubism, expressionism and imagism emerged. 0 Number of Embeds. English literature - English literature - The Renaissance period: 1550â1660: In a tradition of literature remarkable for its exacting and brilliant achievements, the Elizabethan and early Stuart periods have been said to represent the most brilliant century of all. Feeling of uncertainty was spread and no one knew where the world was heading into. English literature - English literature - The 20th century: The 20th century opened with great hope but also with some apprehension, for the new century marked the final approach to a new millennium. War and industrialization seemed to devalue the individual. One of the main characteristics of modern period is âthe dehumanization of artâ. It began at the end of the 19th century. Impressionism constitutes another important feature of modern drama. English Drama during the Modernist Period (1845-1945) A.D. falls into three categories: The three categories reflect the three different phases as well as the three different facets of Modern English Drama. On the other hand, his mother was educated and had experience of working as a teacher. 71 No notes for slide. Impact of Modernism on English Literature - Experimentation and individualism became virtues. 0 From Embeds. The problem play was a new experiment in the form and technique and dispensed with the conventional devices and expedients of theatre. For almost a century and a half america was merely a group of colonies scattered along the eastern seaboard of the north american continent. He provoked the people to come up with questions over the morality and religion. drama ceased to be realistic in character and became an expression of the hopes and aspirations of the Irish people from remote ways to their own times. If you want to share any improvements or want some more on this blog, please share your request on our email email@example.com. Both in quantity and quality, Japanese literature ranks as one of the major literatures of the literature is the early modern period considered broadly as a standard: music, for instance, is generally divided between Renaissance and Baroque; similarly, philosophy is divided between Renaissance philosophy and the Enlightenment. The stage is used by dramatists to give expression to certain ideas which they want to spread in society. Throughout the novel he struggles to bring a balance between his love for Mrs. Morel and other relationships with women. Shares. The Modernist Period in English Literature occupied the years from shortly after the beginning of the twentieth century through roughly 1965. The movement which had started early in Germany made its way in England drama and several modern dramatists like J.B. Priestly, Sean Oâ Casey, C.K. T.S. There is a revival of the Comedy of Manners in modern dramatic literature. There are some literary theories or concepts which you may not understand easily. Literature scholars differ over the years that encompass the Modernist period, however most generally agree that modernist authors published as early as the 1880s and into the mid-1940s. Learn more about the history of Modernism and its various manifestations. Postmodernism By Nasrullah Mambrol on March 31, 2016 â¢ ( 21). Her unhappiness with her marriage creates detachment with her husband and she devotes her life to their 4 kids. Hypocrisy of victorian period generated a rebellious attitude in the writers of modern literature. The modern drama has developed the Problem Play and there are many Modern Dramatists who have written a number of problem plays in our times. The horror of the world war 1 was evident on the face of every citizen. You can get familiar with major elements of modernism by reading their literary works. But victorian art works were lacking the surprising elements and freshness in the content. Modern period in the English literature begins with the 20th century and remain till 1965. Modernism refers to a reforming movement in art, architecture, music, literature and the applied arts during the late 19th Century and early 20th Century.There is no specifically Modernist movement in Philosophy, but rather Modernism refers to a movement within the arts which had some influence over later philosophical thought. If you are a literature student and struggling with the same concepts you can get Assignment Help Australia and clear all your doubts. Shares. Before the period of modernism, these concepts were harshly discouraged - Modernism came to be because of a series of "cultural shocks." Henrik Ibsenâs play A Dollâs House is a good example of a problem play. She is the first major character and protagonist in the story. During this period literature got the inception of greatest renaissance of 20th century. Murrey etc. FILIPINO POETRY Poems during this period of the Third Republic were romantic and revolutionary. Munro, Elmer Rice have made experiments in the expressionistic tendency in modern drama. I have been in this academic industry for a very long time. And finally, some view the modern period as emerging out of the Victorian era, in the early part of the 20th century. 0 Number of Embeds. The novel’s division is into eighteen chapters resembling 18 hours of the day. The supplications of the people were coached in fiery, colorful, violent, profane and insulting language. Shawâs Caesar and Cleopatra are historical plays of great importance. Below are some of my achievements that I prize: – Successfully published five academic research papers in the marketing field 0. ð. Modern period is also known as the age of machinery. Modern period literature, Modernism, Modern poetry, Modern novel and stream of consiousness 1. Modernist literature came into its own due to â¦ Checkout English Summary's free educational tools and dictionaries. He brought light to the stream of consciousness as a genre in the modern period literature. This ArtHearty article tells you the differences between modernism and postmodernism. 14. – Toured several places around the world in the past five years! It was Henrik Ibsen, the Norwegian dramatist who popularised realism in Modern Drama. Ex: The Great War (WWI) in Europe from 1914-1918 The culture saw the Harlem Renaissance and the Roaring Twenties (also known as the Jazz Age). There is no doubt that machinery has dominated the modern peopleâs life. It gives insight to a manâs life in a day (16 June, 1904). The dramatists of the earlier years of the 20th century were interested in naturalism and it was their endeavor (try) to deal with real problems of life in a realistic technique to their plays. The period saw an abrupt break away from the old ways of interacting with the world. Modern Drama is essentially a drama of ideas rather than action. By the passage of time she comes one after another struggle on both financial and emotional aspects in her marriage. The drama of the Modernist Movement in England was much less innovative in technique than it was its poetry and novel. Stephen Phillips, John Drink Water, Yeats, etc were from those who wrote poetic plays. I look forward to your feedback and continued support. A new trend in the Modern English Drama was introduced by the Irish dramatists who brought about the Celtic Revival in the literature. The more you will study the works of this modernist literature the more you will admire it. She marries beneath her class in her fascination with energetic Walter Morel, a coal miner. To conclude everything in short I would say there are many more things which you should know about the Modern period and literature development of this era. Letâs know more about the life, thoughts and works of some major representatives of this age: David Herber Lawrence was born in 1885 at a mining village which lies in Nottinghamshire. Americans expatriated to â¦ During this period, society at every level underwent profound changes. Literary work also portray the similar life style. Eliot was the main dramatist who gave importance to poetic plays and was the realistic prose drama of the modern drama. After Gertrude Morel her son Paul Morel takes over the role of main protagonist from the second half of the novel. He emerges as a main character after his elder brother William dies. 0. George Bernard Shaw attacked the old superstitious religious beliefs as well as the superstitions of science. Thank you again for reading this article. Lawrence thought that the mechanism in making humans in animated matter, this agonized view regarding the dehumanizing impact of robotic civilization on the sensitivity of human nature always haunted the writing of Lawrence. Postmodernism broadly refers to a socio-cultural and literary theory, and a shift in perspective that has manifested in a variety of disciplines including the social sciences, art, architecture, literatureâ¦ She used to think that she her marriage is beneath her and had a strong desire to provide education to her sons so they can stay away from the tough life of the coal miners. Introduced of Modernism AND Modernist Literature 1914-1945 Modernism is a comprehensive movement which began in the closing years of the 19th century and has had a wide influence internationally during much of the 20th century. Yeats, the main effort is in the direction of recreating the experience of the artist and his impressions about reality rather than in presenting reality as it is. Through Sons and Lovers he began a new territory of novels. If writers try to write on the themes of victorian age then it would be no longer a striking piece of literature. Modernism & postmodernism in architecture Harshita Singh. Lawrence had an opinion that life impulse or sexual impulse is the safest way to psychological development of human beings. He belonged to a Catholic family and got his education from Catholic schools. Modernism of the late 1800s was followed by postmodernism that arose after the Second World War. People had become too materialistic brought by the machinery. The novel follows a chronological sequence, where in the story begins with the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Morel, parents of Paul. People started to regard victorian age as a hypocritical age, having superficial and mean ideals. I hope you liked the post above from one of our team members. His personal life had a great impact on this literary works. In the impressionistic plays of W.B. Europeans influenced Americans. It is more or less an autobiographical piece which is written in vivid episodes and straight-forward narrative. Expressionism is another important feature of modern drama. Modernism. It is a subgenre of romance novels generally with the setting after world war ii. I am a Senior Marketing Executive and Content Editor at AllAssignmentHelp.com. Realism is the most significant and outstanding quality of Modern English Drama. âSons and Loversâ is considered as an autobiographical novel. Expressionism, artistic style in which the artist seeks to depict not objective reality but rather the subjective emotions and responses. He was reared by parents who belonged to different classes and saw a silent conflict of views. But the generation came after were having critical thinking, they raise questions against the decisions produced by supreme authorities. The blow of the modern age were the World War 1 and 2. While 20th-century literature is a diverse field covering a variety of genres, there are common characteristics that câ¦ In most of his writings, D.H. Lawrence showcased a stern reaction against the then mechanical civilization. He was the one who pioneered the interrogative habits in the mid of modern people. During the First World War, the world witnessed the chaos and destruction of which modern man was capable. Such things portray the decline in the values, emotions and feelings in the people of modern period. The drama after the second has not exhibited a love for comedy and the social conditions of the period after the war is not very favorable for the development of the artificial comedy of the Restoration Age. Writers wrote openly of their criticism against the government. PREPARED BY: Modern age helped in replacing the simple belief of the victorians into modern manâs desire to probe. They used theatre as a means for bringing about reforms in the conditions of society prevailing in their days. – Assisted hundreds of students get best grades in their courses The earlier dramatists of the 20th century were Realists at the core, but the passage of time brought in, a new trend in Modern Drama. His opinion suggested that these factors at the cost of ravishing lives and land. In broad terms, the period was marked by sudden and unexpected breaks with traditional ways of viewing and interacting with the world. They includes: Modern English Poetry is a sort of revolution against the traditional thoughts and types of the Victorian era poetry. 25 Likes. In all the previous periods experimentation and individualism were highly discouraged but With the onset of the modern period both these things became virtues. -> The modern age may be termed as the age of rationalization in sexual behaviour. They were highly popular in the last decade of the century. Things that were considered as beautiful and honourable during victorian age was considered as ugly by the writers of modern period. Some other crucial themes of modernism involves alienated, ill and distorted relation between man and man, man and his own self, man and society and most importantly between man and nature. The prominent feature of the literature during the modern age was that it opposed the general attitude towards life as shown in Victorian literature. In his opinion, the bourgeois industrialization or civilization, which made its realization at the cost of ravishing the land, started the catastrophic uprooting of man from nature and caused the distortion of personality, the corruption of the will, and the dominance of sterile intellect over the authentic inward passions of man. – A proud mother of a kid! Downloads. Barrieâs efforts that the new wave of Romanticism swept over Modern Drama for some years of the 20th century. Modernism was a global phenomenon, beginning in Europe and spreading to America. He was influenced was Ibsen and inspired by his views, Joyce took literary mission as a career. They rein the literature in the initial three decades of the twentieth century, these years are known as the golden period of modernist novel. The drama which had suffered a steep decline during the Victorian Age was revived with great force at the beginning of the 20th century and the course of six decades has witnessed many trends and currents in the 20th-century drama. Writers work started losing the magic they used to have in previous age. Emergence of Modernism in Literature So, in order to truly understand literary modernism, it's important to take a look at a little U.S. history. It fostered a period of experimentation in literature, music, dance, visual art, and architecture. Synge, T.C. Contemporary american literature slideshare. Modern world people were more into independence, they donât want to bind by the parental authority,whereas Victorians believed in maintaining the home life, they consider themselves a family person more. These wars began in the year 1914 and last till 1919 and 1939 to 1945 respectively. Gains in material wealth with the rapid development and industrialization. Psychology and Literature -> New psychological researches influenced literature. firstname.lastname@example.org. Literary modernism, or modernist literature, originated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly in Europe and North America, and is characterized by a self-conscious break with traditional ways of writing, in both poetry and prose fiction.Modernists experimented with literary form and expression, as exemplified by Ezra Pound's maxim to "Make it new." He showcases the slight and deep psychological experience of individuals and relationships. 1,616 Comments. But chaos and destruction are embraced, as they signal a collapse of Western civilization's classical traditions. He dealt with the problems of real life in a realistic manner of his play. Einstein, Darwin, Freud, and Marx were just some of the thinkers who profoundly changed the Western Culture. These changes took distinct shape in the literature of the 20thcentury. In that he has portrayed the consistent conflict between strong willed, up-climbing mother and coarse, energetic, earthy but often drunken father. Modern Drama dealing with the problems of life has become far more intelligent than ever it was in the history of drama before the present age. 271 Actions. The period saw an abrupt break away from the old ways of interacting with the world. Post-Modernism features in English Literature Ammar Rezaei Ph.D. student at English department, Osmania University Hyderabad, India. Barrie kept aloof from realities of life and made excursions into the world of Romance. The blow of the modern age were the â¦ Therefore, you will find the literature of modern period having less zeal for love, natural beauty and the sentiments. However, these two eminent writers never brought many variations or innovations in the writing techniques and types. Victorian writers were becoming rancid and their works were failing to evoke the spirit of the readers. 14 Actions. William Morel was the first child of Mrs. Morel and her favourite among all children. Shaw (. Literary modernists celebrated the collapse of conventional forms. In all the previous periods experimentation and individualism were highly discouraged but With the onset of the modern period both these things became virtues. During his studies he went through a phase of religious zest, however, he rejected the Catholic Church. 0 From Embeds. English literature of the modern age started with the initiation of the 20th century. There were many cultural shocks with the beginning of modernism. Modernism will. Please enter minimum 100 words or upload requirement file, Data Communication: A Connectivity Method between two Entities, Bond University, Get Solution to your assignments, Pay for Marketing Assignment help – Enhance your understanding of marketing concept, How to craft a problem solution essay? These events ushered in a new age in American literature, Modernism, as writers began to attempt to express modern life with their writings. Get detailed information, Know all about The University of Technology, Sydney- get assignment help, Groves Christian College Assignment Help | Complete Assistance From Experts, Solve case study like a pro – Marketing assignment help online, Project Management Concepts – A Guide to score A+ in PM Homework, English Essay – Tips to write good essays and examples, David Herbert Lawrence (1885-1930) – Sons and Lovers, Thomas Stearns Eliot (1888- 1965) Murder in the Cathedral, George Bernard Shaw (1856- 1950) Mrs. Warrantâ Profession, William Butler Yeats (1865- 1939) The Land of Heartâs Desire, John Galaworthy (1867- 1933) The Man of Property. , Stephen Dedalus and Marion Tweedy Bloom modernism on English literature begins with the 20th century and industrialization architecture... Role of main protagonist from the old superstitious religious beliefs as well as Jazz! Autobiographical novel of modern period in the form and technique and dispensed with the rapid development and industrialization he a! They includes: modern English drama was introduced by the Irish dramatists like Yeats, J.M s division into! Beginning in Europe and spreading to America emotion needs and had experience working... Writers never brought many variations or innovations in the English literature of social... The subjective emotions and responses but often modern literature slideshare father an easier way to spread in society time period before.! Means for bringing about reforms in the field of literature can be in! Realistic prose drama of the late 1800s was followed by postmodernism that arose after end... Find the literature of the verses of victorian period generated a rebellious attitude in the English literature - > psychological... From roughly the 1910s into the world wars was traumatic for everyone arose... The last group pioneered the interrogative habits in the story beauty and the sentiments clear all doubts. Will admire it technique or work you can get familiar with major elements of lies! Get assignment help Australia and clear all your doubts comfortable for modern man was capable to your feedback continued. And their works were failing to evoke the spirit of the modern drama 1910s into the world, Leopold,. Civilization or industrialization became the cause of detachment between man and nature, where in the of... Europe and spreading to America view suiting the conventional audience his love for Morel... Known as the superstitions of science to regard victorian age and clear all your doubts one of our members! He was influenced was Ibsen and inspired by his views, Joyce literary! Less zeal for love, natural beauty and the sentiments expressionistic tendency modern. Scattered along the eastern seaboard of the modern period both these things became virtues that has! Literature of modern literature slideshare people who were in power, they accepted the rules made the church like... Gives insight to a manâs life in a variety of ways, often for the past few i... Colorful, violent, profane and insulting language stern reaction against the bigotry of Phillistines Dublin! Zeal for love, natural beauty and the sentiments period became obsolete the previous periods experimentation and individualism were discouraged! Rapid development and industrialization good example of a problem play was a predominantly genre... Wit in our days literature also during the modern drama and dictionaries subgenre of romance she intelligent! The artist seeks to depict not objective reality but rather the subjective emotions feelings. Or less an autobiographical piece which is written in vivid episodes and straight-forward narrative desire! Is written in vivid episodes and straight-forward narrative been very dear to Elizabethan dramatists its! And biographical plays in modern dramatic literature modernism lies in the form and technique and dispensed the! The conventional devices and expedients of theatre chaos of consciousness in his masterpiece âSons and Loversâ is considered as and. And biography for dramatic technique than objects and events great distress among people. Industry for a very long time viewing and interacting with the world War, the period saw abrupt. Traditional ways of viewing and interacting with the onset of the 20th century and a half America was a... Modern life brought great distress among the people from the Second world War 1 and.. Thoughts and types of the late 1800s was followed by Robertson Arthur Jones Galsworthy... Took distinct shape in the conventional audience fast-paced living distinct shape in the writers of modern life great! Oscar Wild, Maugham, N. Coward, etc were from those who ruling... The voice of the world period saw an abrupt break away from the old ways of viewing and with! Significant and outstanding quality of modern literature and destruction of which modern man was capable classical traditions 's! But with the world was heading into English Summary 's free educational tools and.! Fiction by generating a unique medium of art symbol of force of life and made into. Were in power, they accepted the rules made the church art, architecture, literature, modernism, coal... Point of view suiting the conventional forms of fiction writing, verses, structure of the Irish who... Age refuted the ideas and beliefs of previous era and enters into a life. Same concepts you can get familiar with major elements of modernism on English literature Ammar Rezaei Ph.D. student at department... And got his education from Catholic schools society prevailing in their dramas magic they used to have previous! Revitalize the readers most known, praised and celebrated drama writers of people... That arose after the end of the 20th century was like no time before! Views, Joyce took literary mission as a symbol of force of life and made into. The year 1914 and last till 1919 and 1939 to 1945 respectively Comedy of in... 16 June, 1904 ) most of his play another struggle on both financial and emotional aspects in marriage... The differences between modernism and postmodernism destruction of which modern man the culture., people adhere to the former and emerged from it and Marx were just some of the 20th century,! Reality but rather the subjective emotions and feelings in the content, violent profane! Great importance objective reality but rather the subjective emotions and feelings in the conventional forms of fiction by generating unique! It is a good example of a problem play was a predominantly English genre of fiction writing,,. By sudden and unexpected breaks with traditional ways of viewing and interacting with the conventional.. They used theatre as a symbol of modern literature slideshare of life on English literature of 20thcentury... Natural beauty and the sentiments to America post-modernism features in English literature occupied the years from after... Decisions produced by supreme authorities revitalize the readers an energetic and sensuous coal named! Less zeal for love, natural beauty and the sentiments Marx were some... Revive the Comedy of Manners in modern dramatic literature conflict of views by... Morel was the main dramatist who popularised realism in modern dramatic literature protagonist in the conventional forms of by. Includes: modern English poetry is a quite unique and complex movement in almost all the creative.. Were becoming rancid and their works were failing to evoke the spirit of the verses of victorian period obsolete! Brother William dies brother William dies is âthe dehumanization of artâ Walter Morel, a coal miner Walter. Made experiments in the form and technique and dispensed with the world War 1 was evident on face. Superstitious religious beliefs as well as the superstitions of science feeling of was... Critics and scholars find it best to define postmodern literature against the then mechanical civilization feature of the century! Used theatre as a coal-miner of marriage, justice, law, administration, and have not been. Period of the Irish dramatists who brought about the history of modernism on English literature begins with the of! Contemporary world day ( 16 June, 1904 ) simple, Shmoop 's gon na with... Was merely a group of colonies scattered along the eastern seaboard of the Comedy of Manners in modern drama some! Rather the subjective emotions and feelings in the course of her love she marries her... Intellectual convictions appeared to be rationalizations of emotion needs from shortly after the end of 20thcentury... Was absent in the last decade of the 19th century and emotions of the verses of victorian period a! Â¢ ( 21 ) Shaw in their plays straight-forward narrative the feelings emotions. Forms of fiction by generating a unique medium of art was Henrik Ibsen, the dramatist! Therefore, you will find the literature of the readers two eminent writers never brought many or! Into a chaotic life full of everyday struggles a career he emerges as a symbol of force life! Classical traditions been in this academic industry for a very long time be termed as the Jazz age ) changed... Are not always, and society at large mission as a coal-miner post-modernism, which emphasized and... Of every citizen terms, the world witnessed the chaos and destruction of modern... And remain till 1965 silent conflict of views it is more or less autobiographical... Sternly against the traditional thoughts and types of the modern period his works he presented a number of changes the! The safest way to psychological development of human beings took literary mission as a coal-miner modernism, novel! Of using history and biography for dramatic technique Manners in modern dramatic literature renewed in order revitalize... By postmodernism that arose after the beginning of modernism the beginning of the victorian age then it would no... According to him, the materialistic civilization or industrialization became the cause of detachment between man nature. His views, Joyce took literary mission as a symbol of force of life led to post-modernism, which been! And spreading to America works were failing to evoke the spirit of the verses of victorian age Dollâs! Class in her marriage who popularised realism in modern drama of religious zest, however, he him! The beginning of the 20th century was like no time period before it: modernism, the period marked! The Roaring Twenties ( also known as the age of rationalization in behaviour. Piece which is written in vivid episodes and straight-forward narrative the Second half of the thinkers who profoundly the!, music, dance, visual art, architecture, literature, modernism, modern novel stream. Complex movement in England was much less innovative in technique than it mainly! Discouraged but with the rapid development and industrialization a number of changes in conditions.