levels of stress and anxiety produced by sufficiently dysfunctional social and especially economic environments. Psychological and Social Functions of Religion. The function of religion is any service, role and effects of religion on human life. Religion and Social Dysfunction Evidence that secular democracies have lower violence and sexual crime: Two centuries ago there was little dispute over the existence of God, or the social benefits of a popular belief in a creator. The Vern and Bonnie Bullough Collection on Sex and Gender contains a variety of books that focus on the intersection of religion and human sexuality. Religion is a social institution, because it includes beliefs and practices that serve the needs of society. This is demonstrated through such benefits as: religious organizations are not required to pay some taxes Functions and Dysfunctions of Religion Religion is a universal part of many cultures and affects societies through its functions and dysfunctions. Sin is what we are made of, and whatever we humans are doing is bound to be corrupted in one way or another. Religion performs welfare, education and recreation functions - Religious Organizations carry out or build ip some welfare activities and social programs, and they also operate charitable institution, hospitals, orphanages, medical clinics and etc. 5. In particular, Durkheim thought of the close-knit interactions between families and small communities, groups of people who share a common religion, who may eat together, work together, and spend leisure time together. Why religion is so widespread amongst human societies? The study focuses on the prosperous democracies, because “levels of religious and nonreligious belief and practice, and indicators of societal health and dysfunction, have been most extensively and reliably surveyed” in them. Critical theorists view religion as an institution that helps maintain patterns of social inequality. Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is "a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability".. What this suggests is one of two options: Either religion leads to social dysfunction, or that dysfunctional people turn to religion for relief. Functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionism all provide valuable ways for sociologists to understand religion. Whether that change is manifest or latent is a relatively simple empirical question. In the case of religious beliefs, there is typically a social payoff to these mental contortions – a range of evidence supports the role of religion in social bonding. Religions fulfill psychological needs. Firstly, religion offers a reason for life on earth, by explaining life after death, and giving its followers missions and motives for daily life. lt is called dysfunctional when it promotes superstitious beliefs and ‘meaningless’ practices, (ii) A political machine is dysfunctional when it increases graft and corruption. Religion is also an example of a cultural universal, because it is found in all societies in one form or another. While in other countries the dysfunction of religion has made citizens turn on their fellow citizens. Theoretical perspective Major assumptions; Functionalism: Religion serves several functions for society. These include (a) giving meaning and purpose to life, (b) reinforcing social unity and stability, (c) serving as an agent of social control of behavior, (d) promoting physical and psychological well-being, and (e) motivating people to work for positive social change. Religion helps to create social order and maintains the value consensus. This is an idea with deep roots especially in America. One dysfunction is the presumption that organized religion is a positive social force. But at the same time religion has many dysfunctions or performs many negative roles which destabilises and disintegrates societies in Ghana. Compliance with role expectations and with rules is expected without any flexibility. What part religions play in cultural and social transformation. They provide schools for the poor. Religion is assumed to be a sociobehavioral factor similar to social support and education, factors that themselves are positively associated with several health benefits, including better cognitive functioning (Stephens, Kinney, Norris, & Ritchie, 1987; Weintraub, Powell, & Whitla, 1994). Its role in promoting social solidarity, as Durkheim has pointed out, and its need in providing inner individual peace and solace as Edward Sapir has pointed out cannot be undermined. Religion, on the one hand, teaches that people are born sinners. However, some of the negative roles of religion hinders social and economic progress. Critical Sociology. They help relieve our fears and anxieties about the unknown. While some faiths might view sexuality as a taboo subject, or even as an abomination, other religions embrace and revere the human capacity for sexual expression. Those with the most dysfunction, such as Portugal and the U.S., are the most religious, as measured by self-professed belief, church attendance, habits of prayer, and the like. Dysfunction signifies the mechanism by which social change is evidenced within a social system. Many of these social scientists are known to belong to the tradition of functionalist thought. Finally, religion promotes social control: it reinforces social norms such as appropriate styles of dress, following the law, and regulating sexual behaviour. Religious people are at heightened risk of developing sexual disorders and feeling at a loss to deal with them or get help. Functionalists view religion in a positive way; they see religion to play the function of maintaining harmony and social cohesion. Social functions and dysfunctions of religion. It upholds traditionalism and impedes social changes by encouraging superstitions, traditions and customs. Religion is assumed to be a sociobehavioral factor similar to social support and education, factors that themselves are positively associated with several health benefits, including better cognitive functioning (Stephens, Kinney, Norris, and Ritchie 1987; Weintraub, Powell, and Whitla 1994). Are these functions unique or some human resources can play the role of religion? Keywords: religion, secularization, universality, socioeconomics, societal dysfunction, successful societies scale It is further claimed that the absence of religious belief will contribute strongly to social dysfunction. Although the function of religion is a lot, in this paper we investigate the major functions of religion in personal and social life of human being by Holy Quran and sayings of Religion be when it helps in binding together members of a society. Most religious views on human sexuality are guided by sacred The diversity of religions across cultures. Dysfunctions of Religion As a social institution, religion is a pattern of social action organized around the beliefs and practices that people develop to answer questions about the meaning of existence. Functionalist Theory. Social scientists have analyzed religion in terms of what it does for the individual, community or society through its functions and dysfunctions. A dysfunction for some people, is quite beneficial to others. This approach looks at society through a macro-level orientation, which is a broad focus on the social structures that shape society as a whole, and believes that society has evolved like organisms. How religions contribute to the maintenance of social order. classifying religion as heritage – is, at the same time, a way of negotiating its attitude to its own history. As a belief system, religion shapes what people think and how they see the world. They help us confront and explain death. Whether that change is good or bad would seem to require interpretative criteria not afforded by a social scientific paradigm for functional analysis. For example, in Iraqi the Sunnis and the Shiites have fought civil wars because of religion. Religion hinders Social progress and impedes social changes: Religion makes people dogmatic and God-fearing. Often these families rigidly adhere to a particular belief (religious, political, financial, personal). Social structures have different consequences depending on what group is affected. Religion, gender, and sexuality. Data correlations show that in almost all regards the highly secular democracies consistently enjoy low rates of societal dysfunction, while pro-religious and anti- evolution America performs poorly. Religion is turning people against themselves The demands that religion places on people are unrealistic. For Europe, an act of commemoration – i.e. Religion has also been the source of conflicts between different types of religion such as Christian and Muslims. Essay on the Dysfunctions of Religion – Religion as a basic social institution of human society has been fulfilling certain positive func­tions no doubt. According to Durkheim, the collective consciousness is formed through social interactions. 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