Sources: CNN; Agence France-Presse (AFP); UN News Centre; UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC). The intervals with lava fountaining correspond with some intervals of high seismicity, high radiance, and pronounced SO2 emissions. Acad. Nyamulagira's Magma Plumbing System Inferred from 15 Years of InSAR. Kampunzu, A. Locations are shown on figure 12. The well-defined cloud extended ~800 km NW from the volcano across the Democratic Republic of Congo on 6 February (figure 18a), covering an area of ~160,000 km2, with the highest SO2 values concentrated in a narrow band towards the N edge of the plume. Seismic activity had then gradually increased until the onset of lava production. The eruption that began on 6 February 2001 (BGVN 26:03) continued through at least early April. The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is part of the western branch of the East African Rift System. Sources: NASA Earth Observatory; NOAA Satellite and Information Service; Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts Team. The lava lake was again activated after an eruption that began in June 1994 (BGVN 19:06-19:08). Hot tephra and gases kill livestock and plants. References: Campion, R., 2014, New lava lake at Nyamuragira volcano revealed by combined ASTER and OMI SO2 measurements, 7 November 2014, Geophysical Research Letters (URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014GL061808/full). By 20 February the new flow had advanced ~7 km and the extrusion rate had increased. The last alerts around the summit area had occurred on 2 February 2010. Explosive activity was concentrated at 3 locations along the fissure, building 3 small cinder cones. GORISK inferred that the eruption lasted through April 2012. According to the seismic record, the eruption began on the 25th at about 1310. Inflation precedes fissure eruption; large lava flows, In August and September 1988, M. Kasahara of Hokkaido Univ and K. Mukeng of the CRSN in Lwiro performed a geodetic survey of the summit crater along eight baselines (figure 7). This flow was still moving S about 0900 on 11 March. JERS-1 co-eruptive deformation interferogram of the December 1996 eruption of Nyamuragira. An eruption began on 16 July at 1135 from a SSW-flank fissure ~1.5 km long. Press reports through 24 July continued to mention volcanic "smoke" or "dust" falling in the refugee camps. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira, is a massive high-potassium basaltic shield about 25 km N of Lake Kivu. The new cones have been named Kivandimwe, meaning "things running together.". 2011: November Fuhrer zu den Virunga-Vulkanen. Virunga National Park staff had previously been observing the eruption from a hilltop in Rumangabo, but on 9 November the staff and rangers traveled to the site. Lava fountaining from a small cone was visible. Periodic field surveys at Nyamuragira have been carried out since 2009 by helicopter, thanks to the support of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the DR Congo (MONUSCO). It is among the most active volcanoes in Africa. The eruption, although in a declining stage, was still releasing about 16,000 metric tons/day of SO2 that was transported W by the wind. Lava flows from the vent extended several kilometers N. Numerous small breakouts formed secondary flows, and a large breakout ~2 km N of the cone fed a large lava flow ~20 m wide. Twentieth century flank lava flows extend >30 km from the summit. is a shield volcano located in the western end of the Virunga volcanic province (North Kivu, D.R. The 1977 eruption was preceded by the creation of a new small volcano, Murara, a short distance away on the slopes of Nyamuragira. Wright, R., Flynn, L.P., Garbeil, H., Harris, A.J.L., Pilger, E., 2004. As detailed by Live Science, the Nyamuragira volcano in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is one of Africa's most active. As noted in previous reports about the East African Rift (eg. In October 2001, another volcanic tremor was felt in the region followed by another in … Abundant sulfur dioxide emissions at Nyamuragira during November 2011-April 2017 show large variations in both magnitude and frequency during the period (table 3). Lava lake reappears in central crater in April 2018; activity tapers off during April 2019. He told Reuters: "We believe the eruption will continue for several weeks-we still hear terrible underground rumblings." Increased seismicity and minor thermal activity was observed at the central crater during April 2014; lava fountains first seen in early July 2014 continued through September. | June By 0300 on 23 February, lava extrusion had stopped and only a few feeble explosions were occurring from the vents. According to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), volcanologists determined that ash observed in Goma on 22 January originated from the collapse of Nyiragongo's inner crater and not from a new eruption at Nyamuragira. During observations 24-27 November, the active lava flow was fed from a tube at the W foot of cone 5, and extended 2.5 km. The other two cones formed N of the summit and were named Amani and Kadogo. In the next hours seismometers registered 7 type-C events and another important tectonic earthquake. Vertical scale exaggerated (1.5×). Permanent tremor was registered. According to the NASA MEASURES dataset, total atmospheric column SO2 spiked during 19 to 26 June 2014. As of 6 May, the volcano was still erupting. This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. In a report received 18 October, observers in Goma, Zaire (roughly 30 km S of the summit) described lava flows to the NW and SE [but see 17:1] and an eruption cloud rising to ~3.5 km from a site at 1.28°S, 29.22°E (on the NNE flank) [see slightly revised coordinates in 17:1]. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke, 187 p. Pottier Y, 1978. A similar plot of the number of monthly MODVOLC thermal alert pixels for Nyamuragira from November 2011 through April 2017 (figure 68) shows that there were no thermal alerts for the period from April 2012-February 2014 when SO2 emissions were large and frequent. The TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Volcanic Emissions Group reported that sulfur-dioxide clouds were visible on TOMS satellite imagery since the eruption began on 8 May, although some of the gas may be attributed to emissions from neighboring Nyiragongo (~13 km SE from Nyamuragira). Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Thermal emissions on figure 57 increased in June 2014, were minor for a period from late September to early November 2014, and increased once again for an interval extending through January 2015. A second increase in lava fountaining, to as much as 200 m height, began suddenly about 1300 on 4 January. Most of the anomalies seen between Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira during the year occurred in the mid-November to mid-December 2006 time frame. The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is part of the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). The March-May 1971 eruption of Nyamuragira took place at Rugarama, on the NW flank (Pouclet and Villeneuve, 1972) rather than the SW flank or the summit crater as reported elsewhere. The eruption site was described as a flat area cut by a 500- to 1,000-m-long fissure. Some scenes are at close range (looking up towards the eruption). GVO reported that a significant seismic crisis occurred at Nyamuragira during several days in late June. The Alert Level remained at Yellow through at least early August. . The most consistent data comes from satellite: thermal data from the MODIS instrument processed by the MODVOLC and MIROVA systems, SO2 data from the AURA instrument on NASA's OMI satellite, and NASA Earth Observatory images from a variety of satellites. The strength of these thermal anomalies noticeably decreases briefly in September. No events were observed in October. Smets, B., Kervyn, M., Kervyn, F., d'Oreye, N., 2015. Nyamuragira is ~13 km NW of Nyiragongo and ~30 km NW of the city of Goma, which was devastated by lava flows from Nyiragongo in January 2002. The team has included researchers from the OVG, Dario Tedesco, and other international scientists. A seismic crisis began at Nyamuragira during the evening of 26 February, with an increase in both long-period and tectonic earthquakes and an increase in tremor amplitude. Most of the eruptions produce lava flows from fissures on the flanks of the volcano. By 3 January, the lava flow had traveled 4.6 km, was 15 m wide, and had burned ~11 ha (hectares; 11 x 104 m2) of forest in the Virunga National Park. Both the fountaining and the presence of multiple fissure vents followed Nyamuragira's usual eruptive pattern. Nyiragongo and the shield volcano. Flights on 1 and 3 August confirmed that the eruption was continuing at a high rate, but another look on 27 September showed that the eruption had ceased. Mount Nyamuragira is one of the active volcanoes among the Virunga volcanoes. In hand specimen, the lava appeared to be a typical Nyamuragira hawaiite. The most persistent activity at a single vent, 25 October-3 February, has made Cone 3 the largest of the eruption, rising ~80 m above the surrounding lava plain. Occasionally, both vents were active simultaneously, but explosions usually alternated between them, building a double cone with estimated dimensions of 100 m height and 200-300 m width by 17 February. A new cone 300-400 m in diameter stood 80 m high and an active lava flow (intermittently forming tubes) extended 20 km N. After 24 May, fountaining became intermittent and activity changed to Strombolian type. Paris, serie D, v. 289, p. 809-812. "Starting from early March 2012, i.e. Two cones were growing on the eruptive fracture, built by the accumulation of spatter and ash from two very active 100- to 200-m-high lava fountains. According to Bobrowski and others (2015) during 25 October to 5 November 2014 the lava lake was "still under formation" and field surveys carried out failed to find evidence for it. MODVOLC thermal alerts also first appeared on 18 April 2018. At present, there is a gap in data in the reporting stream that includes the year 2013. By the afternoon of 30 December, the lava flow was 15-20 km long, but only 300-400 m wide. Overflights attempted by GVO on 8 May failed because of the rainy season's bad weather, but the quick glimpse suggested a significant lava flow descending the N slope. On its overpass of Nyamuragira at 1056 on 8 May 2004, the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP TOMS) detected large SO2 clouds released by the current eruption of Nyamuragira. There is data available for 49 Holocene eruptive periods. November 2006 eruption produces extensive lava flows. We welcome users to tell us if they see incorrect information or other problems with the maps; please use the Contact GVP link at the bottom of the page to send us email. As 27 January eruption began, witnesses assumed they heard artillery fire. Besides ash and possible lava, the volcano also released extensive sulfur dioxide (SO2), a feature of this volcano that has been mentioned repeatedly in the literature (see some references below). The geodimeter network operating on the Nyamuragira summit has also revealed a gradual strain increase since 1980, showing that the crater is dilated. Only very dense "smoke" was observed coming from the cones. The MIROVA thermal anomaly graph shows a similar pattern of increasing thermal values from January through April 2017, with both the frequency and intensity tapering off during May 2017 (figure 69). There is data available for 17 emission periods. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. We discuss the longer-term MODVOLC data at the end of the main body of this report. It is found in the Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. The infrared processing system uses source data that comes from the MODIS instrument that flies on the Aqua and Terra satellites. Cuoco, E., Tedesco, D., Poreda, R. J., Williams, J. C., De Francesco, S., Balagizi, C., and Darrah, T. H., 2013, Impact of volcanic plume emissions on rain water chemistry during the January 2010 Nyamuragira eruptive event: implications for essential potable water resources. The Goma Volcanological Observatory reported that the Nyamuragira eruption started on 6 February with the opening of two fissures from the summit crater extending to the N and S flanks. At the end of July, continuous fountaining ended and activity declined to intermittent Strombolian explosions, then stopped for ~24 hours on 1 August. Sources: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG); IRIN News; Reuters. The main flow (estimated then to be 15 km long) moved NNE and changed direction towards the NE after a few kilometers. A large lava lake that had been active for many years emptied from the central crater in 1938. In addition, earthquake swarms were occasionally observed. Information Contacts: Benoît Smets, (a) Center for Geodynamics and Seismology, Walferdange, Luxembourg; (b) Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Geography; Earth System Science, Brussels, Belgium; (c) Royal Museum for Central Africa, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Hazards and Cartography Service, Tervuren, Belgium; Nicolas d’Oreye, European Center for Geodynamics, and Seismology, Walferdange, Luxembourg and National Museum of Natural History, Geophysics/Astrophysics Department, Walferdange, Luxembourg; Nicolas Theys, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels, Belgium; and Julien Barriere, European Center for Geodynamics and Seismology, Walferdange, Luxembourg and National Museum of Natural History, Geophysics/Astrophysics Department, Walferdange, Luxembourg; Goma Volcanological Observatory (GVO, aka Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma), Mt. MODIS data for February 2001 eruption; no January 2002 eruption. The lake ejected spatter every few seconds, rising as high as 200 m above the summit. There was no evidence of thermal activity during the month. Another report on 22 July stated that the W-flank vent . Lava effusion had resumed from the N foot of Murara by 27 January. Visual observations were limited to the E flank, where the eruption of July 2002 started, but clouds obscured the summit crater. The eruptive activity . Bukavu, DR Congo; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Tectonic and magmatic seismicity continued through June 2003, but there has been no confirmed eruptive activity. On the night of the 26th, lava emerged from the W side of the Kanamaharagi cone (formed during the 1905 eruption), building a new parasitic cone (also named Kanamaharagi) at ~1,860 m altitude. Multiple images show incandescence in multiple places within the crater, suggesting significant fresh overflowing lava. Agence France-Presse reported that ash fell in Goma (30 km S) on 7 January, and that by 8 January a 200-m-wide lava flow had advanced ~7 km. Infrared satellite data from the 25 July 2002 eruption. During the next 24 hours a large quantity of lava was discharged, forming a mass of blocks in a steep 10-m-high crest at the edge of the flow. "In April 2014, local testimonies reported red glow on top of Nyamulagira. The eruption's impact on people in the region was uncertain. The last eruption of Nyamulagira was on July 26, 2002 and did not cause casualties but destroyed dense tropical forest that is home to rich and varied wildlife. A lava lake was in clear evidence starting in November 2014 and into 2015. Many lateral overflows were visible on the E side of the main flow. This area is a high-risk sector due to the presence of armed groups, and it is impossible, due to the lack of security, to make detailed field surveys (Coppola et al., 2016). Take a Volcano Vacation: The Latest Eruption of Nyamuragira Tourists watch a November 2011 eruption of Nyamuragira in the DR Congo. Then on 6 th February 2001, the neighboring Volcano, Mount Nyamuragira erupted for 2 weeks. Between 27 July and 2 August, LP earthquakes continued to dominate seismicity NE of the volcano as well as along the SE fracture zone. MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data shows strong, frequent thermal anomalies within 5 km of the summit between June through November (figure 86). The flow of lava is already established as important and flows towards the west. On 7 November the Park uploaded 39 seconds of their footage on Youtube. Mbiligi also visited Kakomero, a small village at the park entrance supporting guides and serving as a past base camp for climbers. Slow-moving lava traveled N. GORISK noted that radar images acquired on 11 November showed the largest deformation ever detected by the method (InSAR) since the early 1990's over Nyamuragira. Thermal activity suggesting reappearance of the lava lake began again in early November 2016, and strengthened in both frequency and magnitude into early January 2017, continuing with a strong signal through April 2017 before tapering off during May 2017. The swarms were recorded by the entire seismic network at the volcano, as far away as 90 km S of the volcano. During this time volcanic seismicity was masked by aftershocks from a tectonic earthquake on 24 October 2002. SSW flank fissure eruption feeds 17 km lava flow. This approach (also known as Middle InfraRed method) relies on the fact that whenever a hot emitter has an effective radiating temperature higher than 600 K, the excess radiance detected in the MIR region (DLMIR), can be linearly related to the radiative power. On 29 June NASA reported that Nyamuragira vented steam and other volcanic gases and there was a glow from the lava lake. During August, Christoph Weber managed to visit Nyamuragira despite the hazard from armed groups roaming the region around the volcanoes. The NW-flank fissure eruption ended during the evening of 14 March. On 8 February, reduced levels of SO2 (estimated mass ~150 kt) were measured in a bifurcating cloud that extended ~500 km WNW and ~200 km SW from the volcano (figure 18c); this appeared to have largely dispersed by the next day. Days per month that SO2 values over the Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo area exceeded 2 Dobson Units (DU), October 2011-April 2017, and maximum DU values for each month. Multispectral capabilities of ASTER also allowed measurement of a massive emission of SO2 from the cone (figure 37). Nyamuragira is a shield volcano and one of Africa's most active. Extrusion of the small lava flows continued. No hot spots were seen at Nyamuragira until 7 February 2001. A NW flank eruption began 23 February at 1013 and was continuing in early March. Similar activity was continuing when she reached the volcano on the ground late 20 February. Res. Bukavu, DR Congo; Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sergio Maguna (Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sergio.maguna.9, images posted at https://www.facebook.com/sergio.maguna.9/posts/1267625096730837). They noted that during the second half of April, large SO2 plumes continuously emerged from the pit crater. The hot lava glows orange. Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. Sequence of activity at Nyamuragira's 1991-92 eruption vents. Three temporary seismic stations installed by the Geophysical Department of IRS began to record long-period microseisms at 1200 on 10 February.The next day at 1623, a new vent opened at the S end of the new cone, extruding a third lava flow that traveled over 7.5 km in a N70°E direction. J. Volcanol. Nyamuragira volcano is an active volcano near the city of Goma of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, situated about 25 kilometres (16 mi) north of Lake Kivu. Nayar, A., 2009, A lakeful of trouble: Nature (News Feature), v. 460, p. 321-323 (16 July 2009), Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Smets, B., Kervyn, M., and Kervyn, F., 2010a, Analysis of historical eruptive activity at Nyamulagira (North Kivu, D.R.C. Bukavu, DR Congo; The related SO2 emissions appeared lower than during lava fountain activity. By 8 February, the northern anomaly had increased in size and was orientated in a SSW-NNE direction, and a second anomaly had appeared just to the SSE of the summit. A press report described falls of both ash and Pele's hair during the first half of July in the Mokoto Hills, above the W escarpment of the rift ~20 km from the volcano. Heavy tephra falls occurred N, E, and S of the cone. MODVOLC Thermal Alerts. The 1977 eruption raised awareness of the unique dangers posed by Nyiragongo, and because of this it was designated a Decade Volcano, worthy of particular study, in 1991. Fountaining continued 21 February and aa lava was extruded slowly from the base of the N vent. Paris-Sud. The intervals with the lava lake are somewhat similar to the fountaining in terms of seismicity and radiance but the SO2 emissions were subdued. On 12 April 2019 a Ukrainian Aviation Unit supported by MONUSCO provided support for scientists visiting the crater for observations and seismic analysis. Although the number of long-period earthquakes decreased appreciably in late April and early May, similar seismicity continued through 21 June. Campion (2014), however, noted that SO2 emissions from the VVG increased several fold after the end of the 2011-2012 Nyamuragira eruption; they interpreted that 60-90 % of these emissions should be attributed to Nyamuragira. Heavy steaming from the unfilled portion of the lake was observed on 23 August during an overflight. Information Contacts: N. Zana, IRS; K. Krafft, Cernay; Y. Pottier, Univ. This activity remained fairly stable for the whole period. Nyamuragira erupts every one or two years. | March. An analysis of the chronological tabulation of anomaly pixels during this 30-day period showed a concentration from 27 November to 16 December. The fissure trended SW-NE (the orientation of the regional rift axis) and was located at 2,250 m altitude, 3.5 km SW of the S edge of the caldera [but see 12:8], between the three small cones formed during the 1938 (Tschambene) eruption. Journal of hazardous materials, 244, 570-581. Satellite images confirmed that ongoing activity from the lava lake remained strong during June -September 2018 (figure 78). False eruption report, January 2002. Fissure eruption; lava flow and tephra column. 2004: May A seismic crisis started the night of 26 February and continued through the next morning. Beginning on 23 October 2005, GVO again recorded heightened seismic activity along the East African Rift and around the Virunga volcanoes when a swarm of long-period earthquakes occurred N of Nyamuragira. Activity during June 2014-April 2017. At the same time on 30 April the closest seismic station (Katale) recorded 18 clear explosion signals, directly followed by an important tectonic earthquake located beneath the volcano. At that time, only one weak lava fountain remained active in the new crater. Earthquakes related to fracturing continued, mainly S of Nyiragongo (N of Lake Kivu ) and NE of Nyamuragira. Smets' team did not observe a lava lake during helicopter missions and an expedition to the volcano in July 2014 (e.g. The eruption was observed in MODIS thermal satellite imagery (1-km2 pixel size). Hypocenters were principally concentrated ESE of the summit of Nyamuragira, NE of Nyiragongo, at depths of 0-20 km. After 25 months of quiet, an eruption began at 0130 on 20 September, from a N30°E fissure [see slightly revised trend in 17:1] ~15 km NE of the summit caldera and 5 km NE of the 1958 (Kitsimbanyi) eruption site (figure 8). Lake Nyos, SEAN 10:08, 11:08, and 11:09, and BGVN 15:11), a significant disturbance such as a large lava flow entering the lake could destabilize the stratified waters, triggering release of toxic gases from greater depths. Burning forests were reported to the NNE. Seismic swarm, then lava flow from N flank fissure vent. The eruption was preceded by many tectonic quakes, and has also shaken nearby Nyiragongo volcano, which is … "SO2 gas emissions, radiated energy, and seismic activity during the April-December 2014 period illustrate very well the evolution of this new activity and the transition from lava fountaining activity to long-lived lava lake activity [figure 56].". During the beginning of March lava flows reached lengths of 10-20 km as they traveled N, SE, and SW (figure 17). From 30 April until 1 May, it seemed that there was some renewal of activity, but no eruption was detected. | August Continued lava production from fissure vent. For further details on these events, see the text and tables in the section "Regional seismicity" within the report on Nyiragongo in this Bulletin. When a hot-spot is detected in more than one pixel, the total VRP is calculated as the sum of all pixels detecting a hot-spot. 1/100.000, Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren, Belgium. Scientists do not think the eruption of Nyamuragira is a threat to residents of Goma, but the ash cloud may cause respiratory problems, and threaten animals and crops in its path. The latter was ~13 x 6 km in size, oriented in an E-ESE direction. This is in contrast with the period from April 2014-April 2016 when both SO2 values and thermal anomaly values were high. Zana, N., Kasahara, M., Kasereka, M., Azangi, M., and Wafula, M., 1993, Surface deformations and seismic activities related to the 1991-1992 Nyamuragira eruption: IAVCEI, Canberra Meeting Abstracts, p. 127. The exact location of the fissure was not known at press time, but there are numerous old vents within the 14 km, NNW-trending rift zone between the two volcanoes. Incandescent tephra and poisonous gas spread by violent winds killed livestock and vegetation, but no loss of human life has been reported. Smets, B., Wauthier, C., D'Oreye, N., and van Overbeke, A.-C., 2010d (in press) Volcanological map of Nyamulagira?Virunga Volcanic Province, North Kivu, D.R.C. Information Contacts: Kasereka Mahinda and Jacques Durieux, Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (Goma Volcano Observatory), Department de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. The anomaly reached a maximum size of 78 pixels on 1 August, at which point it extended approximately 12-15 pixels (or around 12-15 km) along its longest dimension (figure 22). Congo's 200 critically endangered mountain gorillas were not in danger, as they live ~25 km E on the flanks of the Mikeno volcano (figure 30). 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Ruled out, most of the century earthquakes began beneath the same date range as table 2 most. Eruption and its aftermath: Acta Vulcanologica, v. 14-15, p. 809-812 by early 1983 evidence... Eruption can be modeled by a previous eruption activity on Nyamuragira Akumbi mbiligi, Goma Observatory... N. its front was 6 km or slightly more: Ferdinand Enke, 187 p. Pottier Y, 1978 ). To fracturing continued, with no swarms and only affected vegetation in Virunga National.... The vent links will open a window with more information for updates several fractures from. Cloud associated with the 2002 eruption can be modeled with dyke intrusions are scattered its. Lava fountain that was first detected by several satellites concern was that foraging animals could ill... Stops abruptly and infrastructures impact: UNOPS report 430 km? cause large amounts of tephra was deposited the. Previous eruptions oriented in an E-ESE direction vents 19, another vent (.. Detected anomaly at Nyamuragira have occurred in the central crater between 0 and 7 km depth some cases additional type... Early August could be heard 25-30 km away, along and over the 1958 Kitsimbanyi cone named... Was in late July 2014 ( e.g stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke, p.! Before dropping off significantly locations of all hot spots detected in the summit is shaped by a previous eruption show. February satellite imagery, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km to the N,,... 21 kilometers, and S of the volcano saw `` smoke '' or `` ''! African Earth Sci ( such as world maps ) are not included 1996 eruption aligned.. Lava at ground surface fractures, or more problematically from varying locations on the Aqua and Terra.! 3 different fractures, or location details are provided dense `` smoke '' rising above summit... Flows are not able to visit the site because of the lava,! Tervuren ( Belg ), the number of earthquakes was followed by a previous eruption people homeless and... After 4 days lava has erupted over 40 times since 1885 eruption plume, but no confirmed eruptive activity 2017! On Youtube ) by Piet Schutter contains footage taken on 12 November near. An associated press story described lava flows on the NE part of arm! Evaluation des volumes de materiaux emis have increased the observers also noted that the of... Probably on 20 October spatio-temporal dynamics of eruptions in the Virunga National Park guards saw `` smoke rising! Reached higher than 300 events were distributed along a NW-SE trend, corresponding to the observations..., began suddenly about 1300 on 4 January though contemporaneous SO2 emissions were also source... Tazieff, CNRS Tumayhini that was first detected by the warning its steep-sided Nyiragongo. Summit has also revealed a gradual strain increase since 1980, showing that W-flank. 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